4TH ANNUAL RESEARCH DAY, APRIL 8, 2016, ABSTRACTS

ORAL SESSION #1: 8:30–9:30a.m.
A134: Psychology, Management
A135: Architecture
A147: Civil Engineering
A200: Math, Physics

ORAL SESSION #2: 9:45–10:45a.m.
A147: Mechanical Engineering
A200: CRE Roundtable, College of Arts and Sciences

PLENARY SESSION: 11:00–11:30a.m.
A200: Plenary

PRESIDENTIAL COLLOQUIUM: 11:30a.m.–12:30 p.m.
A200: Dr. Lior Shamir, Associate Professor, College of Arts and Sciences PDF image

POSTER SESSION/LUNCH: 12:30–2:30p.m.
A200 Gallery

 

Oral Session #1: 8:30–9:30a.m.

Room A134: Psychology, Management

8:30–8:45a.m.
“Do We Forget Where the Sounds Come From?"
Phillip McMurray, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

Background: Unlike vision, the cortical representation of sounds is organized according to frequency and not stimuli position. This lack of a specific cortical representation of the auditory space opens questions about whether and how auditory spatial working memory is able to maintain sound position for further recall.

Aims: In this study, with the goal to verify if the memory of sound position declines as the maintenance time increases, we tested the influence of the length of stimulus-response delays on a sound localization task.

Method: In a circular soundproofed room, blindfolded participants heard a single burst of white noise originating from 16 different speakers with an azimuthal separation of 22.5 degrees from each other. Their task was to indicate the position of the sound by using a digital pointer when prompted by a LED light flash. The flash was delivered at two delay intervals: 0 and 10 seconds after the sound was played. A pointer-independent (“clock”) condition was also used in which responses were recorded verbally in terms of minutes of a clock to control for instrumentation bias.

Results: Results show that increasing delays between stimulus and response do not impair sound localization. In addition, we found a bias in the localization responses which were systematically shifted by several degrees toward the 90 and 270 degrees, the two cardinal points of the coronal plane, which correspond to the positions of the ears.

Conclusions: We conclude that within 10 seconds after stimulus presentation, the working memory network is capable of a robust representation of sound position. Such representation is biased with a systematic shift towards the positions of the ears. Clock condition data showed similar trends to pointer data, indicating no presence of an instrumentation bias.

8:45–9:00a.m.
“Gerard O’Neill’s High Frontier and its Environmentalist Critics"
Gonzalo Munevar, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication

There may be no better example of a utopia based on outer space in the 1970s than Gerard O’Neill’s proposal for building space colonies, as presented in his book The High Frontier. At the same time O’Neill’s case also exemplifies the reaction of the “limits to growth” advocates, for their attack on his ideas was as swift as it was vehement. O’Neill drew inspiration from several space pioneers who had envisioned boundless possibilities for humankind in the exploration and colonization of the cosmos. He was particularly impressed by the work of European thinkers such as Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , John Bernal, Hermann Oberth, Guido Von Pirquet, Hermann Noordung, Wernher von Braun, and Krafft Ehricke. His ideas for “islands in the sky,” for example, owe much to Bernal spheres, while his emphasis on finding solutions to our energy, pollution, and scarcity problems by building solar power satellites and mining the Moon and asteroids echoed Ehricke’s “extraterrestrial imperative” to sustain the development of humanity by exploiting the resources of the solar system. His environmentalist critics believed instead that the very attempt to escape our limits by going into space was irresponsible daydreaming. Wendell Barry, for instance, claimed that closing of the earthly frontiers "calls for an authentic series of changes in the human character,” and thus while we need a change of attitude O’Neill offers technological solutions. The morality of the space enthusiast is thus both shallow and gullible, for he offers "a solution to moral problems that contemplates no moral change." And Dennis Meadows urged us to solve our problems here by seeking the “loss of the growth ethic.” Nevertheless, in spite of the bitterness of the controversy, both sides created the basis for cooperation decades later, although nothing on the grandiose scale once dreamed by O’Neill.

9:00–9:15a.m.
“A Beautiful Molineux: Beauty is in the Hand of the Beholder"
Michelle Frolka, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

Beauty seems a quality owned only by certain senses, while other senses seem unable to generate aesthetic experiences. The goal of this study was to measure tactile aesthetic experience and to compare it with visual aesthetics. Forty blindfolded participants haptically explored and rate the beauty of six tridimensional objects. In a second phase, participants visually rated 12 objects, including the six they previously touched. They were also asked whether or not they remembered touching the object. Results show that visual rates are significantly higher than tactile rates. Interestingly, while general correlation between rates in the two sensory modalities is significant (r = .29, p < 0.001), if we exclude the cases in which participants remembered touching the object, the correlation is absent (r = -0.06, p = 0.55).  We interpreted the contrasting results as an evidence that inter-modal recognition plays a crucial role in the association between visual and tactile aesthetics. In fact, after excluding the influence of recognition, visual and tactile aesthetic judgments seem dissociated. We conclude that aesthetics is not an intrinsic property of objects but the result of experiences varying with the sensory modality we use to explore our surroundings.

9:15–9:30a.m.
“Ad Networks and Violation of Android User’s Privacy"
Eralda Caushaj, MBA, MS, Senior Lecturer, Information Technology, College of Management
Rahul Chandrashekar, MSIT Candidate, College of Management
Sai Praveen, MSIT Candidate, College of Management
Veera Raju, MSIT Candidate, College of Management

Mobile user’s privacy can be jeopardized by advertisement associated especially with free apps available in Google Play. Most of the free apps are profitable from the ads network associated with their product. We identified in a pool of 797 top free apps out of each category in Google Play, that there are apps that are associated with 13 ads network and the information collected by these apps is sent to all the ads network in parallel as well as to the legitimate third party server. Privacy violation occurs when the user is not notified, if the app is accessing sensitive information, and if the information is misused by third party-servers. Google Play by early 2016 will make available to the users if every app is associated with ads network or not, but not notifying them how many ad networks are accessing end-users data. We measure the throughput and delay in the network and in case ads network are associated with the app the throughput will be less and delay larger, compared to the one when no ad are used from the app. Therefore we can claim that mobile user’s privacy is violated when throughput is less than the threshold θ(0.84) and delay greater than θ(2.5). Our analysis shows that MobileApp Tracking is an ad associated with 50 apps out of 797 in our pool of data and this ad is a serious threat to the users. Also three adware are some of the top Android privacy threats in 2014.

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Room A135: Architecture

8:30–8:45a.m.
“Automating Form Finding of Climate Responsive Façades Using Big Data and Algorithmic Computational Design with Multivariable Control Logic"
Dustin Altschul, Master of Architecture + Master of Urban Design candidate
Ayodh Kamath, MA, Assistant Professor, College Of Architecture And Design

This presentation will provide an overview of my thesis work at LTU for completion of a Master of Architecture degree. The thesis seeks to explore how computational design may serve as an agency for shifting climate responsiveness from a reactionary concern to a guiding catalyst of form-making within the architectural design process. The critiqued separation between form-making and climatic data inputs in popular and preexisting parametric design processes serves as the impetus for the thesis work that will be presented. As is, current modes of building performance analysis mostly introduce the intelligence of climate data purely for analysis once a design has been conceived and digitally modeled. Current parametric design practices are viewed as not leveraging the full potential of computational design to help designers reach optimal climate responsive solutions, despite robust computational powers and data availability. Furthermore, my thesis explores how design latency can be removed. Latency is typically introduced by a segregated design process that compartmentalizes design and analysis as separate time-consuming activities. This thesis theorizes that computational workflows, consisting of algorithmic/parametric/climate analysis scripted relationships, can automate the authoring of design geometry that is optimally derived from data and occupant comfort preferences. Additionally, it is believed that such a process can consider competing climate and weather conditions so that unified building geometry can be generated, responding to the human-natural relationship multifariously.

This work inquires if climate based multi-variable optimization can be automated, and if so how this computational process will facilitate critical discussions within the architectural practice, as well as the realms of digital design, design process/thinking, energy efficient design, and façade tectonics. If successful, results will yield greater access of ‘Big’ climate data to architectural designers for a synthesized application in creating façade geometries. Making the embedding of performance intelligence in a building façade design more efficient.

8:45–9:00a.m.
“i[m]formation"
Ayodh Kamath, MA, Assistant Professor, College Of Architecture And Design

Using principles of information theory (Shannon, 1948), this paper illustrates the steps in calculating the information content of an artifact made from parts, and the information transfers from raw materials to component parts, and parts to the complete artifact. The term i[m]formation, is proposed to measure the amount of information transferred from material to part to artifact, and is defined as the informational ‘memory’ in making (Knight & Stiny, 2015).
The steps involved in the i[m]formation analysis of an artifact are first explained using the hypothetical example of a simple, dimensional lumber frame structure, and the numerical results are illustrated diagrammatically. The information content and information transfers of making are then calculated for an algorithmically designed, laser-cut, table-top scale, plywood artifact. In a third example, i[m]formation analysis is performed on a digitally form-found, algorithmically designed, and CNC-cut, gridshell pavilion structure made from up-cycled reclaimed timber (Kamath, 2015).

REFERENCES
Kamath, A. V. (2015). Optimization of Reclaimed Material for Gridshell Construction. Future Visions, Proceedings of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS) Symposium 2015, Amsterdam. Amsterdam: IASS.
Knight, T., & Stiny, G. (2015, November). Making Grammars: from Computing with Shapes to Computing with Things. Design Studies, 41(A), 8-28.
Shannon, C. E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, 379–423, 623–656.

9:00–9:15a.m.
“Learning from Detroit"
Charlie O'Geen, M.Arch, College Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design
Simon Eltayar, M.Arch Candidate, GRA, College of Architecture and Design

The goal of this research is to clarify a building as a series of materials and assemblies as well as the long-term effects of those systems. Conventionally, “Construction Systems” is taught by delivering lectures on multiple building techniques with examples from textbooks like
"Building Construction Illustrated" by Francis Ching. The books by Ching do a good job of clearly showing the layering of contemporary building construction but are difficult to access for many students who are being exposed to this content for the first time.

Alternatively, local physical examples can bridge the gap for students to learn about construction systems, their elements / materials, and the effects of a range of factors including time, weathering, fire, etc. Because of the local erosion of capital, the City of Detroit provides an extensive opportunity for students to see and touch the materials and concepts that are otherwise abstractly presented by way of textbooks. This method offers the ability for students to visit structures and see them with their own eyes, as all of the building locations will be compiled into a readily available database.

In order to garner examples of appropriate content, a compilation of local building data must be collected and cataloged. The data collection phase of the research, which is underway, consists of driving through Detroit and photographing buildings that could serve as teaching tools. Ideally, the physical content discovered would compliment the textbook by de-mystifying the actual materials and assemblies. However, a parallel form of dissemination that we are pursuing is the collection of these examples into a book that would parallel found, physical examples from Detroit with conventional annotated drawings of similar systems. This book will give students the ability to learn about materials and systems, how they come together, and how they fail.

9:15–9:30a.m.
“Re-Tired"
Charlie O'Geen, M.Arch, College Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design
Tom Dawson, BS Architecture Candidate, RA, College of Architecture and Design

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Room A147: Civil Engineering

8:30–8:45a.m.
“Modeling Green Infrastructure in the Support of Re-Development of Detroit's Neighborhoods"
Rachel Pieschek, MS Civil & Architectural Engineering Candidate, GRA, College of Engineering
Donald Carpenter, PhD, PE, LEED AP, Professor, Civil & Architectural Engineering, Director, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute, College of Engineering

This project is a component of a USEPA Shoreline Cities Grant awarded in 2014 to Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD). The project is a collaborative effort between DWSD, Lawrence Tech University, Detroit Economic Growth Corporation, several non-profit entities and private consulting firms. It is important for green infrastructure retrofit projects to estimate volumetric reduction, especially in CSOs as is the case for this project. An estimating approach is common because of the difficulties associated with accurately modeling green infrastructure. As such, the “success” or cumulative effect of green infrastructure implementation is often estimated and not measured. There are four methodologies currently being used for predicting stormwater runoff for this project including EPA SWMM 5.1, EPA Stormwater Calculator, spreadsheet based NRCS Curve Number (CN) Method, and the Green Values Calculator. Methods based on the CN Method are event-based models and provide volume reduction for specific sized storm events. Other hydrologic models, like SWMM, are capable of continuous modeling and more accurately determine the performance of green infrastructure in terms of peak discharge and volume reduction. These various modeling methods are being compared at both the lot scale and neighborhood scale both with each other and ultimately flow monitoring data being collected within the combined sewer and street gutter systems from both real and synthetic rainfall simulations on the site. The validated models will then be used to more accurate predict flow from existing and redeveloped green infrastructure conditions.

8:45–9:00a.m.
“Factors of Delay in Nuclear Power Plants Projects"
Samer Alsharif, PhD Candidate, Civil & Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering
Aslihan Karatas, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil & Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering

Nuclear power plant projects have unique characteristics (e.g., variability of projects portfolio, processes and procedures, security and safety requirements) that affect precise estimation of project schedule and cost. Inaccurate estimation may result in delay and cost overrun, and accordingly jeopardizing the nuclear power plant’s operating license. To reliably estimate projects schedule and cost, the causal factors of delay in nuclear power plant projects need to be carefully investigated and analyzed. This study presents a framework for identifying causal factors of delay for operable nuclear power plants projects. This framework is designed in three main stages: (1) collecting data on projects that experienced delay for various reasons (e.g., missing schedule updates, design errors, scope change); (2) identifying the reasons for delay into standard common causal factors; and (3) analyzing the identified causal factors of delay and their impact on projects schedule and cost performance. This framework will assist decision-makers (e.g., nuclear project managers and project controllers) in identifying and evaluating the nuclear projects causal factors of delay to improve the reliability of projects schedule and cost estimation.

9:00–9:15a.m.
“A Systematic Approach to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Vacant Lots through the Development and Application of a Portable Rainfall Simulator"
Christopher Bragg, MS Civil & Architectural Engineering Candidate, GRA, College of Engineering
Donald Carpenter, PhD, PE, LEED AP, Professor, Civil & Architectural Engineering, Director, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute, College of Engineering

This presentation represents the Lower Eastside Action Plan (LEAP) component of the Shoreline Cities Grant awarded in 2014 to Detroit Water and Sewer Department (DWSD) to employ green infrastructure practices across the eastside of Detroit to reduce combined sewer overflow (CSO) events. The overall project is a collaborative effort between DWSD, Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG), Detroit Economic Growth Association, Lawrence Technological University (LTU), and several non-profit entities and private consulting firms. The LEAP project specifically represents an effort by Detroit Future City, Eastside Community Network, Greening of Detroit, and Lawrence Technological University to identify, improve, and monitor hydrologic performance of vacant lots on or near the eastside of Detroit. LEAP identified thirty (30) vacant lots in an eastside neighborhood for remediation using one of four prescribed “treatment methods” including combinations of land contouring, rain gardens, flower meadows. LTU was tasked with developing a rainfall simulator system and protocol for use in monitoring and quantifying the effectiveness of each of the various treatment methods. Of the thirty (30) lots, twelve (12), were selected by LTU for spring, summer, and fall monitoring during the years of 2015 and 2016. A simulator was designed to provide adequate rainfall distribution (coverage) over an entire lot (40 x 120 ft.) using an above ground irrigation system. Attached to a local municipal fire hydrant, water flow is conveyed through fire hose, measured using a flow meter, and distributed through a manifold system to the simulator. For each lot, two (2) rainfall simulations ranging from three (3) to six (6) inches of precipitation over four (4) to six (6) hours will be performed during each season prior to and following treatment of the lot. By comparing pre- and post-development rainfall and runoff data, the hydrologic performance of each restoration type and the effectiveness at abating rainwater from the nearest CSO inlet structure determined. The proposed research project serves to aide engineers by providing a system and protocol to effectively generate and monitor stormwater runoff on a lot based scale for use in validating the effect of green infrastructure practices on the reduction of CSO events.

9:15–9:30a.m.
“Cost-Benefit Analysis of Highway Winter Maintenance"
Nishantha Bandara, PhD, PE, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering

Due to the rising costs of winter maintenance activities, highway agencies responsible for winter maintenance operations are constantly looking for new and improved methods, materials and equipment for winter maintenance operations. Cost-benefit analysis of these potential means of winter maintenance is an important step to determine long-term effects of using them.

Recently, Michigan Department of Transportation has invested a considerable amount of resources to acquire new types of snow plows to clear the snow-covered roadways more efficiently. One of those new equipment called “Tow Plow” is capable of clearing two lanes in one pass by using a trailer mounted snow plow pulled by a regular snow plow. This study is aimed at estimating the cost-benefit of using the Tow Plow on different types of roadways and to determine the most efficient equipment combination for each road type.

Previous literature has identified the following major quantifiable benefits of winter maintenance.
1. Safety Benefits – this basically involves the benefit of reducing the crash frequency due to winter maintenance. If the selected method clears the snow faster on the traveled roadways, the frequency of winter weather-related accidents will reduce.
2. Travel time savings – Vehicles can travel faster on clear roadways, and if the selected method clears the snow faster, there will be a decrease in travel time
3. Fuel Savings – Previous studies suggested that vehicles traveled on snow packed, or icy roadways consume more fuel than vehicles travel on clear roadways. The average increase in fuel usage was varied from 33% to as much as 50% (NCHRP, 2007). Therefore, if the roadway can be cleared faster with the selected method, there will be a savings in fuel usage.

Winter maintenance costs include materials, labor and equipment including capital costs and maintenance costs. There are other indirect costs such as vehicle delay cost, less productivity due to fatigue, etc. Although the vehicle delay cost was analyzed in this study, the other societal costs were excluded as it was difficult to quantify.

This study showed relationships between cost-benefits and snow storm severity levels. These developed relationships were used to determine the most efficient equipment combination for each road type for different snow storm severity levels. The developed relationships will benefit highway agencies to properly manage their equipment fleet combination for different snow storm types.

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Room A200: Mathematics, Physics

8:30–8:50a.m.
“Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Facial Recognition"
Gordon Stein, MS Computer Science Candidate, Mathematics & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science
Yuan Li, MS Computer Science Candidate, Mathematics & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science
Yin Wang, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mathematics & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science

Facial recognition is often performed using Local Binary Patterns (LBPs). These patterns allow a computer to detect small details in the texture of an image, such as a picture of a human face. By comparing the textures of these images, a computer program can determine if a face belongs to a known person. Facial recognition becomes difficult when there is only one image available to use for comparison, as many methods require multiple different images to work. Previous work at Lawrence Tech (presented at the CISS conference at Princeton in March 2016) explored a new approach using "image sub-grids" to recognize faces from a single image, with improved accuracy compared to traditional methods. Previous approaches had focused on a uniform grid of equally sized regions, but the sub-grid method divided these regions in new ways to allow for greater accuracy. Continued research at Lawrence Tech has focused on finding new and improved patterns of these sub-grids to obtain better results. These improvements were found using a genetic algorithm, a heuristic search algorithm that simulates natural selection to shape a population of potential solutions into better solutions over multiple simulated generations of competition and mutation. The genetic algorithm approach was able to find new patterns that humans may not easily find and improved the recognition accuracy of the software significantly. These new patterns will need to be analyzed further to determine what factors improved recognition and how well they recognize other datasets.

8:50–9:10a.m.
“Using Momentum Fluctuations to Measure Transport Coefficients of Quark Gluon Plasma"
George Moschelli, PhD, Assistant Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Science
Sean Gavin, PhD, Professor, Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University
Rajendra Pokharel, PhD, Lecturer, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Science

If the universe was created in a big bang then there must have been a phase where the universe was very small and so hot and dense that all matter existed as quarks and gluons (along with things like electrons and photons) in a soup called quark-gluon plasma (QGP). As the universe expanded and cooled normal matter like protons neutrons emerged from the plasma. Discovery and characterization of QGP is one of the primary objectives of the world’s existing particle supercolliders. In fact the production of QGP is one of the few ways we can study the behavior of quarks and gluons (our true mission). Large nuclei like gold or lead are collided at nearly the speed of light and the matter that is formed from the collision expands like microscopic “little bangs”. Huge detectors can measure the momentum of particles that are formed and fly outward from the explosion. We make the assumption that these particles emerge from QGP and model the expansion of the explosion with relativistic hydrodynamics. By including hydrodynamic noise in our model we have determined that the measurement of fluctuations in the difference of particle momenta could yield information about so-called “transport coefficients”. Understanding the values and origin of these coefficients would yield information about how quarks and gluons interact with each other and may even provide information about the early expansion of our universe.

9:10–9:30a.m.
“Asymptotics of the Diffusive Carr-Penrose Equation "
Joseph Conlon, PhD, Mathematics, University of Michigan
Michael Dabkowski, PhD, Mathematics & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science
Jingchen Wu, PhD, Amazon

We seek to understand the long time behavior of different models of coarsening. A robust theory of coarsening was developed in the 1960s by Lifschitz, Slyozov and Wagner. Numerical experimentation shows that the addition of diffusion to these coarsening models acts as a selection principle. We develop diffusive and inviscid analogs of the Carr-Penrose model of coarsening and analytically prove several renditions of these selection principles. We study these nonlinear partial differential equation by viewing the normalized solution as the probability density function of a random variable. Using semi-classical approximations we show that these diffusive partial differential equations can be related to Burgers' equation from the theory of fluid flow. This analysis naturally leads to a study of a generalized Brownian-bridge process and a representation of this bridge process in terms of Brownian motion. Our methodology is to study this problem from a variety of different angles in order to develop a robust theory that can be extended to more general situations.

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Oral Session #2: 9:45–10:45a.m.

Room A147: Mechanical Engineering

9:45–10:05a.m.
“Investigation of the Effect of Vortex Generation on Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)"
Saleh Morjan, PhD Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Badih Jawad, PhD, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Liping Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

High performance requirement for thermal systems in engineering applications have led researchers to search for enhancement techniques that will increase heat transfer rates in systems. Longitudinal vortex generation is a common technique for enhancing heat transfer performance. It can be achieved by employing small flow manipulators, known as vortex generators (VGs), which are placed on the heat transfer surface. The vortex generators can generate longitudinal and horseshoe vortices. These vortices strongly disturb the flow structure and have significant influence on the velocity and temperature fields, which in turn cause heat transfer enhancement. The present work aims to implement the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique to advance the knowledge of flow structure and vortex interactions induced by V-formation type of vortex generators (VGs) as well as it influence on heat transfer enhancement in channel flow.
In this experimental work, a flow field test system embedded with vortex generators deployed in a V-shape will be installed and the flow structure will be investigated using a (PIV) system. Three different configurations of vortex generators, a small single delta winglet pair, a large single delta winglet pair, and two small single delta winglet pairs developed in a V-formation array will be fitted vertically on an aluminum flat plate and tested in a small wind path system of open circuit with horizontal test section of dimensions 70 mm (width) x 35 mm (height) x 1600 mm (length). An axial AC fan will be used to supply the flow of air through the test section. The flow behavior of air stream passing the vortex generators will be observed by using an Atomizer Aerosol Generator. The air flow will be cooling the flat plate which has embedded electric heating constructed as a layered structure. Electrical power will be continuously supplied to the plate from a DC power supply, resulting in a constant-heat-flux heat transfer surface. Data acquisition system will be set up to measure the velocity, pressure loss and temperatures at the test section. Temperature distributions on the heated aluminum plate will be measured using thermocouples. Measurements will be conducted at three different incoming air velocities. PIV experiments will be conducted with and without the presence of VGs to perform the transverse section measurements at different sections along the streamwise direction to investigate the flow characteristics in the channel. The effects of three different attack angles, 15o, 30o, and 45o of the selected VGs will be investigated in this work.

10:05–10:25a.m.
“Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Nanofluids on Engine Cooling Performance"
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, MS Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Liping Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on convective heat transfer performance in an automotive radiator was analyzed based on measured nanofluid properties. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube) and SiO2 nanoparticles ranging between 1 and 100 nm in size were dispersed in distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to provide uniform particle dispersion in the fluid and keep the mixture stable for a long period of time. The impact of various particle types and their volume concentration on fluid properties such as density, thermal conductivity, and viscosity were experimentally analyzed. It is observed that the nanofluid properties increased with the increase in particle volume concentration. TiO2 nanofluids were observed to show the highest increase in density (2.6% higher than the base fluid at a 1% vol. concentration) and also the largest enhancement in thermal conductivity (7.5% augmentation at 1% concentration). SiO2 nanofluids exhibited to be the most viscous, with a 47% increase in viscosity over base fluid at a 1% vol. concentration.
The experimental setup includes an engine dynamometer which is coupled directly to an Aprilia RXV 450 engine. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are placed at the inlet and outlet of the radiator in order to monitor the air and coolant temperatures. A flow meter is attached to the radiator hose in order to determine the flow rate of the coolant. The prepared nanofluids will then be used as coolants for testing and the heat transfer data will be collected from the test setup, once the engine reaches its steady state condition. The experiments will then be repeated with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 1% volume concentration of different nanofluids. The results will be collected with and without nanoparticle seeding conditions, and the impact on performance will be analyzed and compared with the predicted results.

 

10:25–10:45a.m.
“Performance of a Spherocopter UAV in Ground-Effect: Development of a Test Platform"
Jeff Miller, MS Mechatronic Systems Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Ricardo Diniz Caldas, Guest Student, College of Engineering
Joao Martins Junior, Guest Student, College of Engineering
James Mynderse, PhD, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

The Spherocopter is a small, durable UAV platform capable of locomotion by flying and rolling; it is currently being developed for remote inspection and other purposes. The Spherocopter consists of a quadcopter UAV suspended within a lightweight spherical cage. A major hurdle in the development of Spherocopter is the control of the rolling locomotion using only the four onboard quadcopter fans. Further complicating the control of rolling locomotion is the change in aerodynamic conditions associated with low altitude, called ground effect. To develop a model-based control system for this locomotion, a test platform was developed to study the dependence of small (8-14 inch diameter) motor-propeller system performance on rotor ground clearance and angle of incidence to the ground surface. Performance is quantified via the commonly used power-factor vs. thrust-factor curve across a wide range of ground clearances and angles of incidence. Dependence on ground clearance is expected to mirror previous studies, but dependence on angle of incidence (and its interaction with ground clearance) have yet to be studied. Further research will examine dynamic IGE thrust and effects of Spherocopter cage design on the performance and control of the Spherocopter UAV.

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Room A200: CRE Roundtable, College of Arts and Sciences

9:45–10:45a.m.
“Course-Based Research (CRE) in the Core Curriculum and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities"
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology, Natural Sciences
Jeffery Morrissette, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology, Natural Sciences
Shannon Timmons, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemistry, Natural Sciences
Lior Shamir, PhD, Associate Professor of Computer Science, Mathematics and Computer Science
Patrick Nelson, PhD, Associate Professor of Mathematics, Mathematics and Computer Science
Yin Wang, PhD, Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Mathematics and Computer Science
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Melinda Weinstein, PhD, Associate Professor of English, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Kineta Morgan-Paisley, PhD, Senior Lecturer of Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Dan Shargel, PhD, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Paul Jaussen, PhD, Assistant Professor of English, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (often called “CURE” or "CRE") have been developed at institutions across the country, primarily in the laboratory sciences. There is evidence to suggest that CURE courses encourage student investment, engagement, and comprehension. The College of Arts and Sciences faculty at LTU have been teaching CURE courses in the last two years through the support of presidential grant funding. The LTU experience has demonstrated that CURE is a promising pedagogical model that requires certain conditions to be most effective.

This roundtable addresses the opportunities and challenges of CURE by drawing together faculty who have designed and taught these courses. Specifically, we will examine the necessary conditions for the CURE model to be most effective and explore the possibilities for incorporating a CURE approach within the core curriculum and within other colleges. Is a research-based model appropriate for broader liberal arts courses, even within a STEAM institution like LTU? How might one develop original research or scholarship opportunities appropriate for first- and second-year students? What other modes of learning are lost if we take a research-based approach? What are the ethical and institutional consequences of engaging undergraduates in research? Faculty will be asked to draw on their experiences teaching CURE while reflecting on those elements of the core specific to their disciplines. 

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Plenary Session: 11:00-11:30a.m.

Room A200

11:00–11:30a.m.
Course-Based Research Experience (CRE)--Year 2
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Lior Shamir, PhD, Associate Professor of Computer Science, Mathematics and Computer Science
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Shannon Timmons, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemistry, Natural Sciences
Kineta Morgan-Paisley, PhD, Senior Lecturer of Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Paul Jaussen, PhD, Assistant Professor of English, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Dan Shargel, PhD, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

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Presidential Colloquium: 11:30-12:30p.m.

Room A200

11:30–12:30p.m.
"eScience – The Beginning of a New Era in Scientific Research"
Lior Shamir, PhD, Associate Professor, Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

Download The Presidential Colloquium flyer PDF image 

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Poster Session: 12:30-2:30p.m.

Room A200 Gallery

#1
"The Impact of Business Strategy on Leadership"
Thomas Marx, PhD, College Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management 

Purpose:The purpose of this paper is to test the proposition that business strategy affects leadership functions, skills, traits, and styles, and to assess the implications of these effects for the practice of both leadership and strategic planning.
Design/methodology/approach: This is an empirical study based on over 450 responses to an online survey. Continuous rating scales allowed the use of regression analysis to test the impacts of different strategies on leadership.
Findings: The results provide strong empirical evidence that Product (Differentiation vs Low Cost strategies), Best Value, and Blue Ocean strategies have significant effects on leadership. Market strategies (Broad vs Niche strategies) have limited impacts. The greater complexity of Product, Best Value, and Blue Ocean strategies underlie these findings.
Research limitations/implications: This study explores the effects of strategy on leadership. Future studies need to explore if these effects are moderated by external, competitive conditions, and if strategy mediates the impacts of leadership on organizational performance.
Practical implications: The practical implications of these findings are that leaders must adjust their behavior and leadership styles to effectively implement alternative strategies, and planners must assess their organization’s leadership capabilities when formulating strategy.
Originality/value: There have been numerous studies of the impacts of external/internal conditions on leadership, but this is one of the first studies of the critical impacts of strategy on leadership.

#2
"Darkroom Street Art"
Breanna Hielkema, Masters of Architecture and Design Candidate, College of Architecture and Design
Lilian Crum, MFA, Senior Lecturer, College of Architecture and Design

This project stems from the idea of darkroom photo transfer onto alternative materials. It is using a known process of printing, and applying that knowledge to print on a wall as a form of mark-making using a tool I am creating. This tool has two main components. One being a striped down version of a darkroom that is easily transported, and the other is the means of projecting the image. The process of printing, the tool I am using, and the material I am printing on all have an effect on the images created.

#3
"A Quantitative Analysis of Pre and Post WWI Art"
Gordon Stein, MS Computer Science Candidate, Mathematics & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science
Dane Falberg, BS English and Communication Arts Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences
Melinda Weinstein, PhD, Associate Professor, English, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences 

The political landscape of Europe changed dramatically up to, during, and after World War I. Alliances were forged and tested. Neighbors became enemies locked in combat for almost half a decade. Our research aims to examine how the political changes affected the artists from a selection of countries. We used the WNDCHRM software to analyze how these changes occurred. This software converts images into “numerical image descriptors”, which allow the program to find which features it detected were most distinctive in each category. It then compares the images to all the categories and finds how similar each category is to every other category. These similarities are then used to create diagrams depicting the relative distances between each input data set. For our research, we have used many different data sets. Some earlier data sets used had issues preventing the output from being as meaningful as possible. The newest tests performed were done using multiple artists who fought in World War I, separated into categories of each artist’s paintings from before and after the war. By combining the output of the software with traditional art history techniques, it is possible to draw new conclusions about the impact the war had on the artists who experienced it first-hand.

#4
"Can Placemaking-Based Art and Design Increase Resilience in Underserved Urban Communities?"
Jason Bender, BS Architecture Candidate, College of Architecture and Design, 2015 Fall Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Joongsub Kim, PhD, AIA, AICP, Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Director of Master of Urban Design Program, Director of Detroit Studio

Placemaking and resilience are concepts that have recently shown up in both academic programs, and real-life application. This research project attempts to find a connection between the two, specifically, if placemaking-based art and design can increase resilience in underserved urban communities. Methods to complete the project included: an in-depth literature review to help operationalize both placemaking and resilience, theorizing relationships between both concepts through analyzing case studies, and using site observations and interviews to test the hypothesized relationship. As this is an ongoing project, conclusions have not been made yet, but the latest results suggest a relationship between the concepts. Site observations of successful placemaking projects (in the West and North End, Detroit) have expressed noticeable resilient behaviors of the community. Through a brief analysis of the interviews with community members, it appears that they believe some, but not all, of the placemaking principles determined through the literature review, are thought to be linked to community resilience. Further analysis of all collected data will be needed before more evidence can be provided. 

#5
"Guidelines for Food-Based Placemaking Designs to Increase Resilience in Underserved Communities in Detroit"
Jeremy Hipp, BS Architecture Candidate, College of Architecture and Design, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Joongsub Kim, PhD, AIA, AICP, Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Director of Master of Urban Design Program, Director of Detroit Studio

This research investigates how food procurement can be incorporated into design as a planning tool to raise the quality of life of people living in underserved communities in Detroit. The research hypothesizes evidence-based guidelines that strive to turn underserved communities into resilient, healthy communities by implementing food-based placemaking strategies. To derive guidelines, first key issues that are common in Detroit’s underserved communities were identified through extensive literature review, case studies, site observations, and community surveys. This research looks at the West End community in Detroit particularly as an example of an underserved site in which guidelines could be demonstrated and tested. To see if the concepts would garner local interest and support, the community group WGBC (West Grand Boulevard Collective) was consulted to test the viability of the proposed guidelines. Throughout the entire study food-based guidelines were selected because most of these communities in Detroit lack a comprehensive urban planning policy on food-related developments. As this is an ongoing project, conclusions on all guidelines have not been made yet, but initial findings suggest food based developments can address a large amount of issues facing underserved communities. The proposed guidelines are intended help policymakers, urban designers, and architects assist and support local areas’ resilient community revitalization efforts. 

#6
"A Hybrid Urban Studio for Holistic Learning: Focus On Placemaking and Resilience in Detroit"
Joongsub Kim, PhD, AIA, AICP, Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Director of Master of Urban Design Program, Director of Detroit Studio

Depending on the particular objectives or scope of an urban design studio, the studio may be driven by physical design, service learning, research, or other focuses. This paper reports the results of a hybrid studio for students of various academic disciplines (including architecture, planning, sociology, civil engineering, landscape architecture, environmental graphics), and diverse racial, and cultural backgrounds to achieve holistic learning about contemporary issues in urban design. The proposed urban studio aims to help students think critically about current trends in urban design and how they might affect urban design profession and communities they serve, through interdisciplinary applied research, integration of theory and practice, civic engagement, small experiments, and reflection on design. This would take place in a semester-long, architecture school-based studio project based in Detroit. Among with the current trends, we decided to focus on placemaking and resilience, as both have received extensive attention from the public, media, academia, and the profession in recent years; additionally this topic has been increasingly relevant to Detroit’s unique context. While the proponents of placemaking have asserted that it increases resilience, a researcher would struggle to find empirical studies that support a positive correlation between placemaking and resilience, especially in low income urban communities in cities like Detroit. Our project was conducted according to the following process and methods. First, students defined and operationalized the terms of placemaking and resilience through an in-depth review of literature in architecture, planning, public health, and other fields. Second, through extensive case studies, students developed a hypothetical model to explain the relationship between placemaking and resilience in underserved communities. Third, students proposed placemaking-based designs to visualize how the hypothesized model would work. Fourth, students tested the design hypothesis in collaboration with residents and key stakeholders of our study communities via systematic site observations and interviews. Fifth, based on the feedback from the study communities, independent studio reviewers and the city officials, students improved their designs and proposed guidelines for placemaking-based designs that promote resilient behaviors in underserved communities. Preliminary results of this studio project include: (1) essential predictors such as values, visions, and social and psychological factors associated with residents participating in placemaking encourage resilient behaviors, and their sustainability and health impacts may be replicable and effective across various locations; (2) current literature lacks research on resilience in the context of long-term or chronic man-made disasters (as opposed to natural disasters) impacting underserved communities; (3) a design process grounded on or informed by findings or lessons learned from other disciplines (e.g., human factors, Reasonable Person Model, Health Impact Assessment, Participatory Action Research in psychology, public health, or sociology) can add value to design and design education. Discussion and takeaways: The potential benefits of the hybrid studio include increasing the students’ appreciation of responsive, iterative, interdisciplinary, and participatory designs, collective capability, critical thinking, and small experiments to frame issues and examine potential solutions in a critical and creative way; residents’ appreciation of shared governance via collaborative decision making, reciprocal understanding of differing opinions and disagreements via social learning, empowerment via co-designing, and more meaningful design via placemaking; and instructors’ appreciation of applied research through incorporation of theory, practice, university interventions, and local community efforts. Other lessons include challenges of educating urban design students about ideal timing and facilitation of informing, consulting, and deciding; pragmatic and timely deliberation; and democratic design to create value and build social capital to benefit the communities. 

#7
"Application of Social Media for Informing the Design and Planning of Urban Environments "
Dustin Altschul, Master of Architecture + Master of Urban Design Candidate, GRA
Joongsub Kim, PhD, AIA, AICP, Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Director of Master of Urban Design Program, Director of Detroit Studio
Marija Franetovic, PhD, Course Developer and New Media Specialist, eLearning Services

Social media technologies present a dualistic opportunity for the betterment of creating and modifying urban environments. On the design/professional side social media can provide rich quantities of geo-specific information that captures how space is utilized by the public. Social media provides a vehicle for passively engaging with the public through data collection review and analysis of items individuals choose to post through their own volition online. Social media can also be used more actively to engage the public through online discussions; it is not uncommon for agencies to utilize social media as a communication device to raise public awareness/engagement surrounding urban planning initiatives. Alternatively, social media can be used as a tool of activism by the general tool for creating changes in urban environments. There are numerous cases where through social media efforts, urban planning/design energies where applied due to awareness garnished through social media. And oppositely urban planningefforts were successfully halted due to online outrage vis-à-vis social media. Through significant literature review, and the observational experience of applying social media as an urban planning/design research tool, this poster presentation provides reflection on the considerations and potential benefits and short comings utilizing social media as an applied research design tool may provide. Of paramount discussion is how the application of social media presents a new terrain of research options for urban professionals. The presentation will demonstrate the varied methodologies for employing social media as a research tool in urban design/planning practice. While also highlighting how social media based research introduces new operational frameworks that describe social media based research mechanics. The purpose of this presentation will be to provide a background of how social media is being employed in the realm of urbanism, how these applications result in novel interpretations of the urban environment, and how both connect to public engagement.  

#8
"Spirituality in Urban Decay: The Case for Community Engagement"
Joongsub Kim, PhD, AIA, AICP, Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Director of Master of Urban Design Program, Director of Detroit Studio
Kim Buchholz, Master of Architecture Candidate, Graduate Research Assistant for Dr. Kim, College of Architecture and Design

BACKGROUND: Recent literature on urban ruins is reporting a link between community engagement and urban decay, particularly in case of Detroit. Therapeutic activities, such as art making, meditation, gardening, and shrine making occur at or near locations of blight. These activities often interrelate concepts of personal, social, and cultural identity; nostalgia; as well as spirituality. Research findings associate places of urban decay as a unification between material and immaterial, linking the therapeutic activities that occur in the presence of urban decay as a form of spirituality.
PURPOSE: This study explores how spirituality prompts community engagement and community development. It also examines how understanding urban decay as a sacred space can impact design decisions made by urban designers and architects.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted of peer-reviewed articles and publications.
RESULTS: The literature review elucidates four main areas within the relationship of urban decay, spirituality, and community engagement: (1) therapeutic activities often speak to the past and present physical/social conditions of urban decay, thus prompting awareness and discussions for civic engagement and/or action; (2) there is a linkage between urban decay and spirituality within natural landscapes in how people interact, behave, and respond to space; (3) the nature of urban decay is representative of the cycle of life, initiating reflection as well as lifestyle changes; and (4) urban decay is used as a means of communication, and therefore a method for social activism.
DISCUSSION: Understanding how urban decay provokes a sense of spirituality, as well as the psychological impacts of blight on community members leads to an on-going discussion of how to adapt urban decay conditions as well as a broadening of the knowledge base in recognizing physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual influences of spatial experiences. 

#9
"Border as Infrastructure: Reconceiving the US Canada Border along the Detroit River "
Ramya Swayamprakash, Master of Urban Design Candidate, College of Archiecture and Design

Background: As old as human civilization, today, over 300 land borders divide over 200 states (Paasi 2011). The act of defining a border is rooted in the act of representation. Borders ‘are essential to cognitive processes, because they allow both the establishment of taxonomies and conceptual hierarchies that structure the movement of thought’ (Mezzadra and Neilson 2013, 16). The border ‘in time can become a formless dynamic and complex condition. The indeterminately changing- in- time landscape becomes a useful conceptual tool to think about borders instead of the conventional model of order” (Monacella and Ware 2007, 21). Bélanger understands landscape (and the processes and systems that inhabit it) as an operative infrastructural ground (Bélanger 2010, 345).
Purpose: Through my urban design thesis (and this poster), I contend that a political border is, in fact, infrastructure. As the operative ground of territoriality, cross border flows, repository of culture and spatial container of a state’s sovereignty, a border is infrastructure. Rooted in materiality and historicity, as infrastructure, borders are malleable, historical and cognizant to longer historical and physical changes due to human and non-human process i.e. resilient. I argue that such a conception offers a new way of understand the border making and shaping processes.
Methods: I use the US Canada border along the Detroit River as a case study, chronicling the making of the border as well as its current spatiality in terms of movement, migration and making. I measure these through trade data (both in terms of volume and value); migration data about certain avian and fish species; dredging data; as well through the use of historical maps.
Results and Discussion: Through this thesis, I aim to re-posit the political border as Infrastructure. In doing so, I aim to use the word infrastructure as a verb i.e. understand the infrastructuring process of border making and living. As a verb, infrastructure describes the predicate of a sentence. In this case, the predicate is a political border. Infrastructure as a verb then becomes a means to describe the phenomenon and consequences of a political border. In doing so, it transforms the use of term border itself. As infrastructure, a political border does more than merely forming a ‘line along or around the edge of something’, it is more than a spatial container. As infrastructure a political border governs specific spatial and material forms in and through itself. As operative ground instead of a testament to a state’s sovereignty, a political border can (and does) lead to offer unique spatial and material opportunities.
This understanding has important ramifications for the theory and practice of urban design. Instead of a quick crossing, as Infrastructure, the political border is a place of being of and in itself. For design and designers, such a conception offers a new way of understanding border crossings as necessarily ‘inefficient’; offering immense possibilities for design instead.  

#10
"Accuracy in Plans"
Emily Matt, Master of Architecture Candidate, College of Architecture and Design
Dale Allen Gyure, PhD, Professor of Architecture, College of Architecture and Design

Dr. Dale Allen Gyure is authoring a book on architect Minoru Yamasaki to supplement Modern Architectural scholarship to create a more complete picture of Modern Architecture, and to address a void in research specifically on Yamasaki. With the lack of a comprehensive text on Yamasaki, there is also no cohesive published collection of Yamasaki’s plans. The purpose is to supplement Dr. Gyure’s forthcoming text with plans that show the buildings as they were first built, before alterations or destruction, to clarify aspects of Yamasaki’s designs that are discussed in Dr. Gyure’s book. Archival plans and plans featured in existing texts were the foundation for the plans generated. Archival photos and Google Maps were referenced to adjust the plans for greater accuracy. As a result of this research effort the generated plans are graphically consistent to improve legibility and are a better representation of Yamasaki’s work due to the corrections in accuracy.  

#11
"Symbolism vs. Infrastructure"
Andreea Vasile, BS Architecture Candidate, College of Architecture and Design, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
James Stevens, M. Arch, Assistant Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design

"We hope for better things; [Detroit] will arise from the ashes" (Gabriel Richard). is probably one of the fundamental mottos many Detroiters still believe in, and even other people who find this city a fascinating place. Over the past decade, Detroit has been the preferred environment for both obedient and subversive protest actions – real initiatives that use accessible resources to place messages in the heart of the everyday. Most of them deal with existing failing infrastructure as their framework. While some of the actions are constructed around a specific issue the city is facing, some others are simply using the infrastructure as an untraditional medium for their general message. The focus of this research is the based on the idea of a symbiotic relationship between Detroit’s failing and unused infrastructure and the lack of public transportation, along with the possible outcomes that can be generated if we project a series of visionary theories into the future. The initial stage of the research is looking at convenient ways of moving people from point A to point Z, with multiple stops in between, and it focuses on Detroit’s salt mines as the primary infrastructure that is transformed in a new public transportation system. The applied outcome will arise from the constrains implied by this new system, and is intended to be a design and built mock-up of an unconventional vehicle of “mass transit”, rigorously created based on fundamental operating principles of existing successful mass transit vehicle typologies. 

#12
"Rollin'"
Elizabeth Steenwyk, BS Industrial Design Candidate, Student, College of Architecture and Design
Andy Hanzel, BFA, College Professor, Industrial Design, College of Architecture and Design (Advisor)

#13
"Identifying Effective Occupancy Interventions to Reduce Energy in Commercial Buildings"
Aslihan Karatas, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Architecture Engineering, College of Engineering
Mistie Vaughan, BS Civil and Architecture Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Rishikesh Prasad Tiwari, MS Civil and Architecture Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Ashley Collins, BS Civil and Architecture Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering

Existing building sector is in need of large-scale energy use reductions through energy efficiency strategies to diminish global warming. To achieve effective energy reductions in buildings, this research study aims to develop a model that measures the overall effectiveness of occupancy-focused energy use interventions (e.g., sending weekly emails, posters) in buildings. The model is developed in four stages: (1) data collection of energy consumption from a sample of buildings at Lawrence Tech campus; (2) model formulation stage that identifies the effective occupancy-interventions for the analyzed building(s); (3) model implementation stage that performs identified occupancy-interventions on the analyzed buildings; and (4) model evaluation stage that analyzes and refines the performance of the collected data from a sample of buildings at Lawrence Tech campus. This research study is expected to assist decision-makers (e.g., facility managers) in delivering the occupancy interventions effectively to reduce building energy usage tailored to occupants’ energy behavior, and accordingly improve the overall buildings’ energy performances. The developed model will also be used as a road map for providing great energy reduction opportunities on university campuses. 

#14
"Site, Sun, Shadow: Achieving NZE"
Lu Peng, Master of Urban Design Candidate, College of Architecture and Design, GRA, studio[Ci]
Haibin Tan, M.Arch, College of Architecture and Design, Senior Designer and Project Manager, studio[Ci]
Christopher Bragg, MS in Civil Engineering Candidate, GRA, Collge of Engineering, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute,
Andrew Bradford, BS Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Designer, studio[Ci]
Constance C. Bodurow, AAIA, AICP, CUD, Associate Professor, Director, studio[Ci], College of Architecture and Design
Donald Carpenter, PhD, PE, LEED AP, Professor, Civil & Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Director, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute
Robert Fletcher, PhD, Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Director, Alternative Energy Program

PROJECT: [sw]LAB NZE Hybridized Ecosystem, designed by studio[Ci], a transdisciplinary design collaborative in the CoAD. Our overall goal is to turn a school on Detroit's west side into a learning laboratory for sustainability and to generate energy, wealth, and educational and training opportunities through NZE technologies (renewable energy, water management, and waste recycling).
FOCUS: My research has focused on following three areas:
1 Site: Iterating a site plan through diverse inputs that can be easily recognized by our constituency groups and the general public. Studying the holistic and reciprocal relationship among public realm and public transit in a broader Detroit context, the Tireman neighborhood, and the site.
2 Sun+Shadow: Utilizing parametric design to build the system + site model in Rhino, and then analyzing the impacts and benefits of light, shadow, view, and system location on site to achieve technical, performative, and use metrics.
3 Scaling the System: Replicating, based on the design and the Sun+Shadow study, the single prototype module to a group modules, then scaling those modules to create a canopy. The parametric design exercise considered “rules” such as proximity to active site entrances, visible from surrounding streets, affording at least 8 hours sunlight, etc.
METHOD: I employed various design and analyze methods for my research. In summer 2015, as a student in Principles & Practices of Urban Design, I focused on design/development of the site for the NZE Prototype. I studied the relationships between the downtown, the neighborhood, public realm and the installation, and made recommendations on how to raise public awareness about the project and school. I contributed CAD, photography, model building and hand drawing to the team collaboration. Then as a GRA in studio [Ci] (AY2015-2016), I applied parametric design methods on the research of sun, shadow and aesthetic impact to the prototype and canopy design, which supported team’s analysis on performance of the prototype, evaluation and selection of optimized site, module, and canopy alternatives. Office administrates and team collaboration is also part of my role. 

 #15
"Layout and Systems Optimization for Automotive Sealing Products"
Leah Batty, BS Industrial Engineering Candidate, A. Leon Linton Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering 
Matt Brown, BS Industrial Engineering Candidate, A. Leon Linton Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Corynn Moten, BS Industrial Engineering Candidate, A. Leon Linton Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Ahad Ali, PhD, Associate Professor, A. Leon Linton Department of Mechanical Engineering,College of Engineering
Don Reimer, MA, Senior Lecturer, A. Leon Linton Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

This study focuses on the layout and systems optimization for the ElringKlinger’s new plant in Southfield. ElringKlinger produces tailor-made products designed for a wide range of sealing applications relating to engines, transmissions, exhaust systems and auxiliary aggregates. The main products are gaskets where needed, e.g. heat shields, filters, sensors and pre-assembly components. Process mapping, value stream mapping (VSM), layout optimization tools and simulation are used for an optimal layout with minimize cost and maximize the floor space and productivity. Existing systems are analyzed, developed current and future value stream mapping. Improvement of the layout and production systems are proposed. 

#16
"Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer Performance of Nanofluids in an Automobile Radiator"
Anand Chaudhari, MS Automotive Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Liping Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

Nanofluids (a suspension of a very small amount of nanometer-sized metallic or nonmetallic particles in a base fluid) are potential heat transfer fluids with enhanced thermo-physical properties and heat transfer performance that can be applied in many systems for better performance. In this project, numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effectiveness of nanofluids used as coolant in automotive engines to improve the radiator performance. With this numerical simulation, the heat load, heat transfer coefficient, and pressure drop in a fin-and-tube heat exchanger with different types of nanofluids are studied. The simulation is being carried out using CoilDesigner software to evaluate the heat capacity with and without nanoparticle seeding. Various nanofluid mixtures are prepared and fluid properties that influence the thermal transport performance (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, etc.) are experimentally measured and implemented into the simulation to illustrate their impact on heat transfer performance. This work may advance the understanding and implementation of nanofluids for enhanced heat transfer, to further improve the energy efficiency in radiators.
 

#17
"Development and Testing of Exhaust Heat Recovery System (Ehrs) & Engine Insulation in Internal Combustion Engines"
Shashank Rai, MS Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Selin Arslan, PhD, Assistant Professor, Director of the MSME Program, College of Engineering

Exhaust Heat Recovery System is an upcoming technology in the automotive industry to improve fuel economy and efficiency with respect to emissions. It also helps in cold start conditions to give better performance. EHRS focuses mainly on heating the powertrain fluids. The worldwide problem we are facing with millions of vehicles running everyday on the streets is the increasing emissions resulting in serious environmental pollution. This places increasingly stringent rules on auto manufacturer to regulate their combustion temperature and to downsize the engines. Moreover, the gases like hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter that are emitted into the environment are being curtailed down by EPA and other agencies worldwide.
This project is a representation for the development of an exhaust heat recovery system (EHRS) and Engine oil sump insulation system in a single cylinder internal combustion engines and provides basis for a master’s thesis. It contains information about designing, fabrication and testing procedures of EHRS and Engine oil sump insulation.  

#18
"Piezoelectric Actuation for Microfluidic Mixing Applications"
Alhaji Fatmah, BS Biomedical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
James Mynderse, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Mansoor Nasir, PhD, Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering

Introduction: The microscale flow in lab on a chip technology is mostly laminar, which limits mixing to diffusion and hinders successful implementation of many assays. Piezoelectric materials can convert electric charge into physical motion and thus are excellent candidates for microfluidic mixing applications. This project described the flexibility of handling of PVdF and PZT actuators for "soft" microfluidic devices.
Materials and Methods: The piezoelectric actuators were driven by a connected-bridge circuit. Dissolution times for similar sized salt crystals were recorded at various frequencies under a microscope in order to find the resonant frequency that causes the highest vibration. The vibration displacement of the PVdF cantilever beam, with one end fixed, was analyzed under a microscope and the Kinovea program was used to determine the displacement. The last step is determining the efficacy of mixing in closed PDMS microfluidic channels. Red and blue dyes were entered into a y-shaped PDMS channel and the flow and mixing properties were observed with and without piezoelectric actuation.
Results and Discussion: The results of the dissolving duration experiments indicate a positive effect of using the piezoelectric. The average time of salt dissolving was 122 sec without mixing, which reduced to 75.9 sec with the mixer actuating at a frequency of 5.4 kHz. The maximum displacement of 7m was found for the PVdF cantilever beam at 27 Hz. Close channel mixing shows a relationship between flow rate and frequency with diffusion area. However, there are no significant results. More investigation is needed to fully characterize this effect. 

#19
"Hep-DOPA Functionalization of Titanium Nanotube (TiNT) Orthopedic Implant Coatings and the Stem Cell Recruitment Factor SDF-1Beta Release Kinetics"
Christina Nagle BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, William Beaumont Hospital, Orthopedic Research Intern
Kevin Baker, PhD, Director Research Engineer, William Beaumont Hospital Orthopedic Research Director
Erin Baker, MS, Research Engineer, William Beaumont Hospital Orthopedic Research
Meagan Salisbury, MS, Research Engineer, William Beaumont Hospital Orthopedic Research
Mackenzie Fleischer, BS, Research Engineer, William Beaumont Hospital Orthopedic Research

In 2010, there were 719,000 primary total knee replacements and 332,000 total hip replacements. Implant macroscale coatings and surface treatments have shown some success in promoting osseointegration of joint replacement components. SDF-1β is a chemokine naturally occurring in the body that recruits stem cells and can differentiate them into specialized cells, ideally in this case osteoblasts. When coating orthopedic implants with this protein, greater bone growth can occur. This study focuses on the functionalization of titanium nanotube (TiNT) surfaces to bind SDF-1β, as well as characterization of resultant release kinetics. As-received titanium will be compared to two different categories of nanotubes: trabecular and aligned. A heparin-dopamine conjugate and SDF-1β were attached to each titanium group. XPS and a toluidine blue assay were used to characterize the surface of the titanium. A release kinetics study will be completed to monitor the release of SDF-1β from the titanium using ELISA. The goal is that the hep-DOPA conjugate will reduce a quick release of SDF-1β. Success of this study is to demonstrate extended release of SDF-1β from TiNT surfaces, prepared with Aligned and Trabecular morphologies and functionalized with heparin-binding domains. This in vitro study will be used for an in vivo study in rats using this implant coating strategy. 

#20
"Does Electrical Brain Stimulation Affect Identity and Spatial Working Memory of Sounds and Pictures?"
Rachel Anderson, BS Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Gonzalo Munévar, PhD, Emeritus Professor, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

Every day we are able to combine our perception of object identification and localization with working memory. Recently, studies have attempted to enhance working memory with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This study focuses on using tDCS to manipulate a person’s ability to identify and localize pictures and environmental sounds. Subjects were instructed to memorize a list of stimuli and later recognize whether the stimuli was presented and whether it appeared on the right or left side of the computer screen or headphones. A sound and picture task was presented during the sham and a second sound and picture task was presented during the actual stimulation. Results show a sensory modality effect: pictures were better recognized and localized than sounds. Most importantly, it was also found that tDCS has a differential effect on the recognition of stimuli in different modalities: while recognition for pictures increased, recognition for sounds decreased during stimulation. These results confirm a dissociation between auditory and visual working memory for location and identity. 

#21
"The Effect of Synthetic Pheromones on Spatial Cognition"
Christina Buck BS in Chemical Biology and Psychology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Shannon Timmons, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences
Kineta Morgan Paisley, PhD, Senior Lecturer, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

Studies have shown that men have better spatial cognition and a superior sense of direction than women. This project aims to investigate whether male pheromones may be the cause of this advantage, or whether female pheromones may be a disadvantage. Pheromones are chemicals produced and released into the environment by an animal that affect the behavior or physiology of others within the species. They are released from the body on a variety of occasions, especially during sexual activity. In our research study, participants were exposed to either male or female pheromones using specially designed necklaces over the course of 24 hours. Following pheromone exposure, three tests related to spatial cognition were administered to a sample of 100 students: E Corsi, revised PSVT:R, and innovative Google Maps tests. Spatial cognition is focused on how one views their environment, such as how to translate an object from 2D to 3D. Preliminary results from spatial cognition tests given to study participants exposed to either male pheromones or female pheromones will be presented. 

#22
"Analyzing Auditory Split-attention via the Dichotic Listening Test"
Alexander Gruber, BS Molecular and Cell Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Kadijah Kalo, BS Molecular and Cell Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Amal Alattas, BS Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences
Gonzalo Munevar, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication

The dichotic listening test has been researched in many different studies. Its main purpose is to investigate selective attention of the auditory cortex through two different stimuli played simultaneously in a participant's ears. The participants are directed to listen and repeat what they hear in one ear, the attended input, and the stimuli in the other ear that is not repeated is referred to as the ignored input. Split-attention is usually associated with a learning defect in which a person's attention is divided between two different inputs, which can be visual or auditory, lowering the amount of information the person is able to retain. For this pilot experiment electrical stimulation was placed over the auditory cortex in the hemisphere that was located on the same side as the attended input. For example, when the subject was told to repeat the information he/she heard through the right ear, stimulation would be applied over the right auditory cortex. The hypothesis was that this would help the subject hear more through the left ear and possibly less in the attended ear, splitting his/her attention between the two inputs. To see how well the attention was split, the dichotic listening test was carried out and participants were asked to recognize words heard in either ear. Two trials were performed, one with attended right hearing and stimulation over the right auditory cortex and the other with left attended hearing and stimulation over the left auditory cortex. The participants acted as their own control with sham stimulation run through the first half of each trial followed by real stimulation through the second half. The results supported the hypothesis, as split-attention seemed to be induced with the stimulation of the auditory cortex. Attended recollection dropped and ignored recollection increased with right stimulation and attended and ignored recollection both decreased with left stimulation. 

#23
"Agency, Valence, and Emotion-modulated Judgment"
Daniel Shargel, PhD, Assistant Professor, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

According to Appraisal Theory, emotions are caused by a sequence of distinct judgments (referred to as appraisals), and each combination of judgments produces a distinct emotion. For example, anger is produced by an appraisal that an event has negative valence (a judgment that the event is bad) and an appraisal of high agency (the event was caused by someone who had control over the outcome). In our Fall 2015 Ethics class, my students and I designed and began to implement an experiment to investigate the effects of these judgments as part of the CRE initiative. Previous research showed that anger makes us subsequently judge that people have more agency, and sadness that they have less agency, since anger is caused by a high agency appraisal, and sadness a low agency appraisal. Our objective was to extend this research to cover corresponding emotions with positive valence: gratitude, which is caused by a high agency appraisal, and feeling lucky, which is caused by a low agency appraisal. Appraisal theory predicts that gratitude and feeling lucky should have a different influence on judgment, and that this difference should correspond to the difference between anger and sadness. We designed a novel method of eliciting all four emotions and testing their effects. 

#24
"Speech to Song Analysis of 'We Real Cool'"
Steven Pascoe, BS of Audio Engineering Technology, College of Engineering

The Speech-to-Song Illusion was discovered by Diana Deutsch, professor of Psychology at University of California, San Diego. This phenomenon is the perception of a spoken phrase as being sung rather than spoken, when heard repeatedly. The reason this phenomenon occurs, as hypothesized by Deutsch, is that listening to a phrase on repeat engages a part of our brain that looks for melodies rather than speech patterns. In light of the speech-to-song illusion, the question arose: "Could the Speech-to-Song Illusion be used to create a musical metric to quantitatively measure characteristics of a spoken poem?"

The experiment involved looping three different spoken renditions of a poem to engage the Speech-to-Song effect. Each line was looped until a melody was perceived, then the melody was played on a digital piano and recorded into the recording software ProTools. The recording was then musically notated as sheet music automatically via the recording software.

The melodies and sheet music were then compared. Attributes such as note values, tempo, rhythm, and note duration were all compared. Similar note values and emotional tones were observed, as well as vastly different tempos, rhythms, and note durations. Overall, the results showed the method of musically notating a poem via the Song-to-Speech Illusion to be very reasonable. There is good reason to conduct more research and look more closely at the above attributes to extract even more meaningful data.

#25
"The Poem in Online Spaces: Questions of Aesthetic Fragmentation and Identity"
Sarah Fewkes, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Department of Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Paul Jaussen, PhD, Assistant Professor of Literature, Department of Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

Often, social media spaces are curated specifically for aesthetic pleasure. Some accounts on Tumblr, Instagram, Twitter, and other sites exist as small galleries of carefully-selected writings, photographs, paintings, songs, etc. to create a precise aesthetic experience. Because of the visual nature of these spaces, any words displayed tend to be in short segments for visibility and digestibility. Poems, then, are fragmented and shared as one or two lines or stanzas, rather than the poem in its entirety. This poster explores the implications poetic fragmentation on each fragment itself, the poem, and the poem in its context within a collection. To do this, I study the work of the contemporary poet Warsan Shire, who has become popular on social media for her poignant poems dealing with issues of race, gender, nationality, and more. I argue that, as demonstrated by the fragmentation and proliferation of Shire’s "Questions for Miriam," circulated fragments of poetry earn their own new poetic identity independent of the original poem and that their proliferation alters the identity of the original poem. 

#26
"Evaluation of a Facial Care Product as a Potential Endocrine Disruptor"
Christina Buck* BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences
Sarah Fewkes* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Kadijah Kalo* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
*Authors have contributed equally to this work.

The industry for skincare and cosmetics is booming. In particular, East Asian skincare markets are rapidly expanding and one of the major pressures on that market is to export products to the West. The growth in exports of Korean products could have an interesting effect on western markets, particularly given the lack of brand loyalty, high rate of new product development, and different skincare practices in the East. With respect to cosmetics, many concerns have been raised about potential endocrine disruptors. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which interfere with the performance of the endocrine system and thus have potential to adversely affect the function of the human body. We wanted to examine two comparable cleansers, one of Korean origin and one of American origin, to look for potential endocrine disruptors. We used human adrenal cells (H295R cell line) to assess the endocrine impact of the cleansers. A cytotoxicity assay initially determined the toxicity of the two cleansers to assess the concentrations to which the cells could reasonably be exposed. The American product was extremely cytotoxic, but once a safe concentration of the Korean product was established, the cells were exposed to the cleanser at that concentration and were tested for testosterone and estradiol secretion using enzyme immunoassays. 

#27
"Cancer Concerns: Testing for Mutagenicity of a Corticosteroid Cream Using the Ames Test"
Kristen L. Johns, BS in Chemistry Candidate, Natural Sciences
Sarah C. Fewkes, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemical Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

Clobetasol propionate is a potent US Class I corticosteroid used for the treatment of eczema, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis caused by exposure to urushiol. It is also used to treat autoimmune diseases such vitiligo and lichen planus. Clobetasol propionate warns of teratogenic effects, but searching for the mutagenicity of the compound returns unclear and sometimes contradictory results. In order to test the potential mutagenicity of this drug, a 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream was tested using a liquid-medium Ames test. The Ames test, developed by Dr. Bruce Ames in the 1970s, established a firm relationship between mutagenicity and cancer by utilizing the concept of reverse mutation. It was concluded that the clobetasol propionate cream causes frameshift mutations in one strain of Salmonella cells. 

#28
"The Role of Semen-Derived Exosomes on Acute HIV Infection in T Lymphocytes"
Bridget Moricz, BS Molecular and Cell Candidate, Natural Sciences
M. Nia Madison, PhD, Department of Microbiology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa
Jennifer Welch, PhD Candidate, Department of Microbiology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa
Chioma Okeoma, PhD, Department of Microbiology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa

About 35 million people are infected with HIV and even with antiretroviral therapy, the infected individuals are still not living a normal life expectancy. Exosomes, nanovesicles with host proteins and small RNAs, have been shown to possess antiviral properties including suppression of HIV infection. However, these studies were performed in a short-term setting within 24-48 hours post infection. Here we sought to determine the role of semen exosomes on HIV infection in a longer setting, up to ten days post infection. Semen exosomes were added to acutely infected Jurkat cells and aliquots of the cells and media were taken every two days. The samples were then analyzed for viral integration, replication and fitness either by qPCR, gel electrophoresis or reverse transcriptase assays. Based on the results, exosomes decrease HIV integration, replication and progeny fitness.  

#29
"Phage Phinders: Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophage from Suburban Detroit"
Chase Gucwa, B.S. Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Department of Natural Science
Bridget Moricz, B.S. Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Department of Natural Science
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Natural Sciences

Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are specific to their host. Even though they were first discovered 100 years ago, there are still many unknown species. In addition, bacteriophage could be used to help combat bacteria which are resistant to antibiotics. Here, we are seeking to discover and characterize a novel soil bacteriophage that infects Mycobacterium smegmatis, a common soil bacterium. Our characterization process will include isolation of the phage from a suburban Detroit soil sample and amplification to prepare for phage characterization. DNA will be extracted and purified. It will then be subjected to restriction enzyme digestion to create a “phingerprint” (a characteristic pattern of digested phage DNA) which can be compared to other phage via phagesDB (a phage database). For further characterization the phage genome will be sequenced. We will compare our phage genome to previously sequenced phages to determine novelty and build a phylogenetic tree. Novelty is defined as < 99.9% similar to all known phage sequences. The discoveries of the
bacteriophage will be discussed later. 

#30
"The Characterization of a Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Soil in Suburban Detroit"
Melissa Sleda, B.S. Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Department of Natural Sciences
Bridget Moricz, B.S. Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Department of Natural Sciences
Julie Zwielser-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Natural Sciences

During the winter season, salt is sprayed on roads and sidewalks to prevent ice. We sought to determine if this excess salt affected the soil microbial community by increasing the presence of halotolerant or halophilic microbes. We collected a soil sample and isolated a single bacterial colony using nutrient agar plates supplemented with 5% NaCl. This bacterial isolate was characterized using multiple staining methods and differential/selective media. The affinity for salt was determined by the ability of the microbe to grow on nutrient agar without 5% NaCl. We also studied the metabolism of this microbe with respect to its ability to utilize various nutrient sources both in the presence and absence of oxygen. Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify the 16s ribosomal RNA gene. This was then sequenced and compared to the 16s RNA bacterial and archaeal database at the National Center for Biotechnology Informatics. In order to provide additional information, we classified the microbe’s genus level. We were able to isolate a halotolerant microbe showing a presence of halotolerant microbes in the soil community. The characterizations of this microbe will be discussed.  

#31
"An Investigation of Endocrine Disruptors from 'Microwavable Safe' Plasticware Containers"
Alexander Gruber* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Science, College of Arts and Sciences
Katelyn Steven* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Science, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
*Authors have contributed equally to this work.

The microwave has become an essential appliance to the average home in today’s society. The average American relies heavily on the microwave to prepare foods, many times within the plasticware container in which it was stored, due to the simplicity it brings to everyday life. The “microwave safe” labels on these containers are deceiving as many of these plasticware containers contain phthalates as a major structural component in the plastic. Phthalate is a chemical that has been identified as a potential endocrine disruptor. There is a risk that the chemical is secreted into the food during reheating, potentially contaminating it. To investigate this issue we microwaved water in both new and used plasticware containers. We then removed the water using a lyophilizer and reconstituted the residue with cell culture media. We then cultured cells and exposed them to media containing plasticware residue. The media was then collected to assess the amount of estrogen and testosterone secreted using an Enzyme Immunoassay. These results will be presented. 

#32
"Halotolerant Microbe Found in LTU Soil"
Maegan Branham* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Allison Kitchen* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
* Authors have contributed equally to this work.

In the Microbiology Laboratory course, the main objective is to gather soil from a location that could possibly yield halotolerant microbes and characterize them. Halotolerant means that the microbe would be able to grow in a regular nutrient agar or would be able to tolerate salt by growing in nutrient agar supplemented with 5% salt. Our sample was collected from near the Don Ridler Field House. We found more microbes growing on our nutrient agar supplemented with 5% salt than on regular nutrient agar, indicating a many halotolerant microbes. We chose an individual microbial colony to characterize further. We ran various tests on this sample in order to identity the microbe. These characterizations led us to conclude that our microbe is Bacillus megaterium. 

#33
"Measuring Endocrine Disruption Caused by Sunscreen using H295R Human Adrenal Cells"
Grant Beuschel* BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, Natural Science, College of Arts and Sciences
Stacy Roelofs* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Science, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
* Authors have contributed equally to this work.

Oxybenzone is a known endocrine disruptor that is used in some sunscreens including Coppertone Sport. This experiment tested the effect of Coppertone Sport SPF 55 on human adrenal (H295R) cells. We specifically are interested in the effect on testosterone and estrogen production. Varying concentrations of both oxybenzone and Coppertone Sport SPF 55 (dissolved in DMSO) were tested to find non-lethal concentrations for these two potential endocrine disruptors. Once viable concentrations were determined, cells were exposed to the potential endocrine disruptors. The media from these cells was then collected and testosterone and estrogen production by the cells was assessed. These results regarding the impact of oxybenzone and Coppertone Sport SPF 55 will be presented. 

#34
"Characterization of A Halotolerant Microbe Found in a Roadside Soil Sample"
Grant Beuschel* BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences, Natural Sciences
David Stroshein* BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences, Natural Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
* Authors have contributed equally to this work

In temperate areas, ice and snow are a part of life in the winter. For the safety of drivers and pedestrians, salt is often applied to roads and sidewalks to depress the freezing point of the resulting solution. However, the salt is never removed from the environment. Some is washed off into the surrounding streams and rivers, where research has shown that it can impact fish, amphibians and plants. However, little has been done to examine the impact of salt on microbial populations in either freshwater or soil. In this study, we wanted to determine if we could identify a halotolerant microbe contained in soil where salty conditions are likely experienced. A microbe was isolated from the soil sample using nutrient agar supplemented with 5% Sodium Chloride (NaCl). After initial isolation, we used streak dilutions to ensure we had an isolated culture. We then were able to grow the bacterium on both nutrient agar with and without 5% NaCl. This indicated that our bacterium was halotolerant, but not halophilic. We then characterized the bacterium using morphological, growth and biochemical characterization techniques. Also, the microbe was analyzed using 16s rDNA sequencing for identification. The characterization and identification will be presented. 

#35
"An Assessment of the Cytotoxicity of Contraceptive Products Containing Nonoxynol-9"
Christina Diez BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences, Natural Sciences
David Stroshein BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences, Natural Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences Natural Sciences

Starting a family is a huge commitment. To aid in family planning, there are many contraceptive products available. Spermicidal jelly is a common option for birth control, but it contains many ingredients which may not be completely safe. Another option is a spermicidal film that may be safer because it has only four components. Both spermicidal jelly and film share the same active ingredient: Nonoxynol-9. In this study, we wanted to determine if these contraceptive products were toxic to H295R human adrenal cells at different concentrations. Cell viability was determined using a trypan blue microscopy assay as well as the Cell-Titer Glo assay. All of the cells were found dead, even at nonoxynol-9 concentrations of 0.0034% and 0.0060% (w/v) for the gel and film respectively. We hypothesize that nonoxynol-9 caused the cells’ death since it is the only ingredient shared by the two products and in the film, it is one of only four ingredients.

#36
"Identification of an Unknown Halophilic Microbe Isolated from Soil at Lawrence Technological University"
Christina Diez* BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Stefany Gomez* BA, Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in Pre-medical Studies Candidate, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
*Authors have contributed equally to this work.

This experiment focused on determining the effect road salt has on the microbial environment of soil. A soil sample was collected from the quad at Lawrence Technological University, and an unknown microbe was isolated in the laboratory. Numerous characterization methods were used in order to gain information on the microbe, such as negative stain, endospore stain, oxidation and fermentation of glucose, and many more. The microbe was also tested for its tolerance and/or requirement for salt. This microbe was unable to grow in medium without salt, indicating that it was halophilic not merely halotolerant. The microbe was found to be a halophilic organism that had similar 16s rDNA to Bacillus marisflavi.  

#37
"The Determination of Possible Carcinogens in Macaroni and Cheese Using the Ames Test"
David Stroshein, BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences
Grant Beuschel, BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences
Katelyn Steven, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Assistant Professor of Chemical Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

The Ames test is a Salmonella mutagenicity assay that uses the concept of reverse mutation to the L-histidine operon. This test is widely accepted due to its efficiency in detecting a large variety of cancer-causing mutagens in an abundance of substances. With controversy regarding the safety of food colorings in processed foods for human consumption, the cheese from two different brands of macaroni and cheese was tested to see if they contained any potential carcinogens. The Kraft cheese contained Yellow 5 and 6 dyes, whereas the Michelina’s cheese contained Orange 6 dye. The Ames test revealed positive results, with a 99.9% significance for mutagenic activity, in both strains, which can cause base-pair substitution and frameshift-type mutations. 

#38
"Investigation of Chewing Tobacco and E-Cigarette Juice as Potential Mutagenic Substances Using the Ames Test"
Alexander Gruber, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences
Kadijah Kalo, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Assistant Professor of Chemical Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

While many studies have shown that cigarettes are mutagenic substances that cause cancer, significantly fewer studies have been conducted to test related products such as chewing tobacco and e-cigarette juice. In our study, we determined whether or not either of these two tobacco-related substances were mutagenic. Using the Ames test and two different Salmonella strains, it was concluded that chewing tobacco is a mutagenic substance that causes both frameshift and base-pair substitution mutations with 99.9% confidence. The e-cigarette juice did not show any mutagenic properties with either bacterial strain.

#39
"The Efficient Synthesis of Warfarin Analogs for Comprehensive Medicinal Testing"
Joseph R. Knoff, BS in Chemistry Candidate, Department of Natural Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Department of Natural Sciences (Advisor)

Drug development is a time-consuming and expensive process with an average time of 10 years and at least one billion dollars required to bring a new pharmaceutical to market. Interestingly, the medicinal activity of many drug candidates reported in the scientific literature is not thoroughly investigated. For example, a variety of warfarin analogs have been studied for decades for use as potential anticoagulant agents; however, little research has focused on the potential anticancer, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties of these molecules. In this research project, warfarin analogs were prepared using 4-hydroxycoumarin and a variety of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones via Michael-type condensation reactions. Progress on the synthesis of structurally related warfarin analogs and the medicinal activity of library members will be discussed. 

#40
"The Changing Face of Athletics: The Possible Mutagenic Effects of Crumb Rubber"
Joseph R. Knoff, BS in Chemistry Candidate, Natural Sciences
Erik J. Davenport, BS in Chemistry Candidate, Natural Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemical Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

The Ames test was developed in the 1970s by Dr. Bruce Ames at the University of California, Berkeley. In an adapted version of this test, the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium is used to study substances that may cause DNA mutations via pH changes detected using a colorimetric indicator. Crumb rubber, a recycled form of tire rubber, is widely used as a filler in artificial turf fields. Recently, crumb rubber has been identified as a potential causative agent in 165 juvenile cases of cancer in the state of Washington. In this research project, rubber pellets were taken from a local turf field and extracts were solubilized in both water and a DMSO/water mixture. With a 99.9% probability, it was determined that the crumb rubber extracts caused a frameshift mutation. 

#41
"Cancer and Chemicals: The Use of a Modified Ames Test to Investigate Potential Mutagenic Substances"
Delaney N. Large, BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, Department of Natural Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Assistant Professor of Chemical Biology, Department of Natural Sciences

Following the seminal discovery that cancer is caused by mutations, Dr. Bruce Ames created a test to identify potential chemical mutagens in the early 1970s. Using a mutant strain of Salmonella typhimurium that cannot produce histidine, he found that the bacteria would only grow if the chemical they were exposed to caused a reverse mutation, allowing the bacteria to produce histidine and survive. The vast majority of chemicals found to be mutagenic via the Ames test were later determined to be carcinogens upon further testing. Using liquid media and a microtiter plate rather than the traditional agar plate-based method, we adapted the Ames protocol to investigate the mutagenicity of plastic water bottles and other household products. This experiment was subsequently implemented as a laboratory module in a junior-level biochemistry course as a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE). The results of our Ames tests using two different strains of S. typhimurium will be presented, along with a further exploration into the mutagenic effects of metabolites using rat liver extracts. 

#42
"Testing the Mutagenicity of Corn Puffs and a Hamburger Patty Using the Ames Test"
Stacy Roelofs, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences,
Christina Diez, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Natural Sciences,
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemical Biology, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

Developed in the 1970s at the University of California, Berkley, the Ames test for mutagenicity was the first relatively simple protocol that could be used to detect the cancer-causing chemicals found in a variety of substances with a high degree of accuracy. Some of the chemicals found in processed foods have recently been shown to increase one’s risk of developing cancer. In this study, the Ames test was used to determine the mutagenicity of commercially available corn puffs, as well as a hamburger patty obtained from the Real Food on Campus cafeteria. Two different types of potential mutations were investigated using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium specifically engineered to detect base-pair substitutions and frameshift mutations. Although challenges were encountered with respect to our positive controls, initial data suggests that both the corn puffs and hamburger patty are mutagens. 

#43
"Computer Analysis of Images in Galaxy Databases"
Evan Kuminski, BS Computer Science Candidate, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science
Lior Shamir, PhD, Associate Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciencese

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the most significant existing autonomous sky survey, which has created a catalog of over 1 billion objects. Future sky surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will only result in larger catalogs. LSST is expected to catalog approximately 20 billion objects starting around 2023. Current manual methods for extracting information from this data are simply not efficient enough to work at this scale, meaning an automatic solution is necessary. Because of this, we used computer analysis to obtain basic morphological classifications for ~3,000,000 galaxies from SDSS to extract useable information from the data that has been acquired. For each object, the resulting catalog includes an ID number used by SDSS, the certainty level of the automatic classification as spiral or elliptical, and some additional commonly used information from SDSS. The use of certainty levels allows the option to ignore galaxies with lower certainty levels in exchange for a cleaner dataset. Statistical analysis of comparing the accuracy of the catalog to the accuracy of manual classification shows that the catalog contains ~1,600,000 galaxies that are in 98% agreement with manual analysis, making it the largest catalog of its kind to date. 

#44
"Machine Learning Analysis: Pandora One Million Song Dataset"
Ivoire Morrell, BS Computer Science Candidate, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts anf SCiences
Lior Shamir, PhD, Associate Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciencess 

#45
"The Glauber Model of Nuclear Collisions"
Alex Marinkovski, BS Math & Computer Science, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Science
George Moschelli, PhD, Assistant Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Science

High energy nuclear collisions are experiments at the frontier of physics. The goal of nuclear collision experiments is to study the most fundamental building blocks of nature (quarks and gluons) by attempting to create a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Large nuclei, like gold or lead, are usually chosen for collisions because they contain many nucleons (protons and neutrons); the collision of two large nuclei could potentially represent more than a thousand sub-collisions of protons and neutrons. This kind of collision can produce extremely hot and dense matter that is hopefully QGP. However, it is very important to discover if this collision is simply a bunch of nucleon on nucleon collisions that are just stacked on top of each other or if it is truly creating a new form of matter, the QGP. The Glauber Model estimates the number of nucleon on nucleon sub-collisions that occur in a nuclear collision based on how “head-on” the two nuclei collide. Current Glauber models do not however take into account how a nucleus would change once one of its nucleons experiences a collision. We are currently developing a new version of this model that changes the probability of a sub-collision for any given nucleon that has already experienced a collision by keeping track of how much energy is lost by each nucleon in each previous sub-collision. This new model could be used to estimate what a nuclear collision would look like if we assume that there is no QGP and therefore become a control simulation. 

#46
"Billion Dollar Bracket"
Patrick Carzon, BS in Physics with Computer Science Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
George Moschelli, PhD, Assistant Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences 

In the NCAA March Madness Basketball Tournament 64 college teams play a single elimination bracketed tournament. Guessing the bracket results has become such a popular social event, that in 2014 Warren Buffett backed a one billion dollar grand prize for anyone who could predict a perfect bracket; 11.01 million people entered submissions and no one had a correct submission after only the second elimination round. There are (9.2 quintillion) unique ways to fill out the tournament bracket. We employ the methods of statistical physics and numerical "Monte Carlo" methods to predict random upsets and calculate the most likely bracket outcomes. By taking the scores from a season of 36 games, the simulation creates a normal distribution curve for each team and samples it randomly for each game in the bracket. Moving into the testing phase of our code, we present our progress in the development of our computer Monte Carlo simulation. 

#47
"Bursting in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons"
Na Yu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain exhibit bursting activity in response to sensory stimuli, including those associated with primary reward. The bursts convey motivation-relevant information to the forebrain. Bursts cause a supra-additive release of dopamine in the forebrain. This research will discover the potential mechanisms of bursting patterns in response to ethanol exposure and ADP/ATP ratio, using mathematical modeling and analysis. 

#48
"Relationship between Innovation and CEOs of Fortune 500 Companies"
Chaitalii Desai Shah, MS in Information Technology Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Maryam Firoozi, PhD, Assistant Professor, Accounting and Finance, College of Managements

#49
"Globalization, Diverse Classes and Challenges Faced by Instructors who Teach Accounting and Finance Courses"
Peihua Wang, MBA Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Maryam Firoozi, PhD, Assistant Professor, Accounting and Finance, College of Managements

Globalization has brought many challenges to institutions all around the world including universities. Having students from around the world puts a new challenge on instructors to teach and convey a subject. Previous research shows that individuals’ learning style, personality and culture are related to students’ performance. Previous research mainly focuses on one nationality or two in their comparison. We intend to extend this literature to investigate the effect of culture, personality and learning style among a very diverse group of students. The study will be done in accounting and finance courses which is considered very hard by many international and domestic students. The result of this study will shed lights on how instructors in accounting and finance can integrate and consider differences in culture, personality and learning style to achieve high performance. The result of this study will help to revise our course syllabus and designs in accounting and finance courses based on the characteristics of students.
 

#50
"Appreciative Inquiry: An Operating System for SOAR"
Afiya Khan, MSIT Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Matthew Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
Jacqueline Stavros, DM, Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Managements

Our current research involves testing the hypothesis that AI (Appreciative Inquiry) is a predictor of SOAR (Strengths, Opportunities, Aspiration, Results). The theoretical premise of this study is that AI is the operating system to SOAR. We tested our hypothesis using structural equation modeling (SEM) on self-report data obtained from the SOAR Profile, our original rapid assessment instrument to measure AI and SOAR.

#51
"Concept of an Autonomous Vehicle"
Mohamadali Rihan, MBA Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Srikant Raghavan, PhD, Associate Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
Shahram Taj, PhD, Professor, Chair of Management and Marketing, College of Management
Eric Waslioff, MBA Candidate, College of Management

Autonomous vehicle technologies are currently being developed at a furious pace and their eventual widespread adoption will be the most disruptive force to society since the industrial revolution. Many predictions are being made as to when the entire fleet will become autonomous. This paper looks at the current status of the development of the Autonomous Vehicle in terms of the levels of autonomy, consumer sentiment towards these vehicles, and its business effect on the automotive industry, the government, and other related ancillary industries. The paper develops a framework for the deployment of autonomous vehicles into the existing transportation infrastructure. This part of the paper is a first step in the autonomous vehicle deployment process since we think it has to be a gradual process starting from transportation systems with complete human control to the final stage of a 100% autonomous transportation system. It is quite possible that the 100% stage may never be realized. However, if the deployment of these vehicles is not planned in a well thought out gradual process by providing a series of sub-goals, the entire concept may be a non-starter. In addition to establishing the sub-goals, there must be sufficient buy-ins by the provider-user base for these systems at each sub-goal before we proceed to the next sub-goal. Finally, we realize that there will be extensive re-thinking along the way regarding this process. 

#52
"CEO-CFO Business Education and Annual Report Readability"
Xi Li, MBA Candidate, College of Management
Ling Tuo, PhD, Assistant Professor, Accounting and Finance, College of Management
Lixin Yan, MBA Candidate, College of Management
Yu (Tony) Zhang, PhD, Assistant Professor, Accounting and Finance, College of Managements

#53
"Impact of Android Application Permissions toward Mobile Threats"
Eralda Caushaj, MBA, MS, Senior Lecturer, Information Technology, College of Management
Rahul Chandrashekar, MSIT Candidate, College of Management
Sai Praveen, MSIT Candidate, College of Management
Veera Raju, MSIT Candidate, College of Management

Android OS based devices have more market share than any other smartphone platform device, 82.8% as of May 2015. Also the market share for smartphone security threats is much larger for Android platform compared to iOS. As of 2014 there are over 1.5 million new samples of Android malware. The Android malwares are camouflaged as legitimate apps in official app market, or as advertisement networks associated with legitimate apps. The Android apps cannot be installed without prior requesting access to device resources and data, such as storage, GPS location, camera, microphone, SMS, phone identity, network information etc. The main attacks use legitimate doors to gain access into the device and applications are the target. The malware associated with legitimate apps benefits from the access to very important resources in the device. Application permissions should be granted at once before the installation begins or you cannot use the app at all. Therefore advertisements and malware associated with legitimate apps can require more application permissions in order to accommodate themselves. Our goal is to identify the most required app permissions required by malware, advertisement networks to attack legitimate Android apps. Also we identify the most dangerous combinations of app permissions and how the user can minimize the threat without compromising the functionality of the app. 

#54
"AAPM: Educate, Inform and Empower Android Users from Malicious Apps"
Eralda Caushaj, MBA, MS, Senior Lecturer, Information Technology, College of Management
Rahul Chandrashekar, MSIT Candidate, College of Management
Sai Praveen, MSIT Candidate, College of Management
Veera Raju, MSIT Candidate, College of Management

The Android apps cannot be installed without prior requesting access to device resources and data, such as storage, GPS location, camera, microphone, SMS, phone identity, network information etc. Application permissions should be granted at once before the installation begins or you cannot use the app at all. The legitimate mobile app, advertisement and threats all require to have access to mobile resources and data in order to properly function. Application permissions are required and should be granted by the user. How to minimize the risk of threats and ads on mobile devices? We have implemented Android Application Permission Manager (AAPM) app that will educate, inform and prevent the users from installing malicious apps. Our framework considers 9 features such as (1) category, (2) free/paid, (3) number of application permissions, (4) range of application permissions, (5) ads associated, (6) not necessary app permission for the functionality of the app, (7) the most required app permission in each category, (8) number of threats each app permission is exposed and (9) dangerous combinations. The features of our app are identified by analyzing 1590 top free/paid apps from Google Play, the official Android market. We evaluate the accuracy of our framework by testing it in a pool of 400 malicious apps.  

#55
"Social Media Analytics: Sentiment Analysis"
Dr. Chih-Hao (Justin) Ku, PhD, Assistant Professor, Information Technology, College of Management
Maryam Firoozi, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Accounting and Finance, College of Management
Rahul Jakkam Chandrashekar, MS in Information Technology Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Mohammed Shoeb Ahmed Hussain, MS in Information Technology Candidate, GRA, College of Management

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3RD ANNUAL RESEARCH DAY, APRIL 10, 2015. ABSTRACTS

College of Architecture and Design: Oral Presentations
College of Architecture and Design: Poster Presentations

College of Arts and Sciences: Oral Presentations
College of Arts and Sciences: Poster Presentations

College of Engineering: Oral Presentations
College of Engineering: Poster Presentations

College of Management: Oral Presentations
College of Management: Poster Presentations

Plenary Session

 

COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN

Oral Presentations

“[sw]LAB NZE Prototype Detroit”
Constance C. Bodurow, AAIA, AICP, CUD, Associate Professor, Director, studio[Ci], College of Architecture and Design
Donald Carpenter, PhD, PE, LEED AP, Professor, Civil Engineering, Director, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute, College of Engineering
Robert Fletcher, PhD, Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering, Director, Alternative Energy Program, College of Engineering
Charlie O'Geen, M.Arch, College Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design
Alin Paul Codreanu, BS in Architecture Candidate, College of Architecture and Design, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient, RA, studio[Ci]Rohit Arnold Papali, MS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering, GRA, studio[Ci]
Haibin Tan, M.Arch, College of Architecture and Senior Designer and Project Manager, studio[Ci]
Christopher Bragg, MS in Civil Engineering Candidate, Vice President, American Society of Civil Engineers LTU Student Chapter, GRA, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute, Department of Civil Engineering
Andrew Bradford, BS Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Designer, studio[Ci]

BACKGROUND: In fall 2013-14, a transdisciplinary faculty team led studios on the design and construction of the [sw]LAB NZE Prototype. Students learned about generative Net-Zero Energy [NZE] architecture/infrastructure; worked on campus and in the Tireman community, Detroit; worked with constituencies associated with Detroit Public Schools, neighborhood residents, and partners; evolved a detailed design through testing and alternatives; engaged in “hands-on” making of the prototype; and created details for construction in spring 2015. PURPOSE: Our transdisciplinary approach incorporates awareness, education, and training in the project allowing both design and primary students, teachers, and community to engage in NZE in three steps: (1) implement a NZE lesson plan; (2) construct a NZE Prototype module that features layered approach for harvesting energy and precipitation by implementing photo-voltaic and water collection infrastructure; and (3) conduct an engagement process with School and Community partners to insure a collective long-term vision and phased implementation. METHODS: The project is the result of four years of extensive applied research, dissemination, and design/development. Our design method requires that the prototype achieve aesthetic, performative, and equity goals. The tight budget and making encourages design students to consider each design iteration carefully. RESULTS: We believe our NZE-generative use design can become a pilot-project for sustainable growth that can be eventually implemented in Detroit. We also propose a new economic model that can serve as a catalyst for the eventual redevelopment of Detroit by transferring and repurposing publicly-held vacant property into a cooperative model of ownership-management for NZE farms that can generate training opportunities for the emergent renewable energy/knowledge-based economy and wealth for the neighborhood. OUTCOMES AND DISCUSSION: We are designing, building and testing the prototype with seed funding from a Ford C3 grant. The structure can be replicated at other schools, reinforcing lesson plans which educate school children and train community members. The project goal is achieving a long-term vision of making the city NZE.

“Digital Reclamation”
Ayodh Vasant Kamath, MA, Assistant Professor

This research describes the creation of a sustainable structural solution for a post-urban context of shrinking cities via the reclamation of materials from abandoned buildings. The design process involves negotiating top-down form-finding of a gridshell, with bottom-up optimization of unpredictably varying reclaimed timber through digital design and fabrication. The design process minimizes the amount of material wastage by taking into account the unpredictably varying sizes (length, breadth, and height) of the reclaimed timber beams. Digital design and fabrication is used to negotiate the variable member sizes and resulting variation in joints and assembly, with the precise geometry of a form-found surface. The RhinoVault V1.0.3.1 plug-in for Rhinoceros 5.0 SR10 is used for form-finding, and a custom Python script in Rhinoceros finds the optimal position for each reclaimed beam. Each beam is assigned a fitness value for its placement at a specific position in the gridshell based on three criteria: form, structure, and tectonics. The beam with the best fitness is selected for a specific location in the gridshell. The current status of this ongoing research includes the construction of a parabolic arch as a proof of concept for the feasibility of constructing a gridshell, the construction of a scaled prototype, and the digital modelling of a gridshell based on measurements of the actual dimensions of reclaimed timber members.

“El Alto Makerspace”
Scott Gerald Shall, M.Arch, AIA, Chair and Associate Professor, Architecture

This presentation presents an overview of the El Alto Makerspace—a mobile platform through which the researcher and a network of local partners can bring metal-, wood- and fabric-working equipment, as well as a small-scale CNC router, to one of the fastest growing informal settlements in South America. Through this work, the researcher and local partners will realize a new platform for creative exchange within the community as well as an assortment of educational and vocational opportunities for kids working the streets of the city.  Through this work, the presentation will discuss the impact of open-source equipment and training within informal settlements.

“Innovation in Building Systems”
Daniel L. Faoro, M.Arch, Associate Professor, Architecture

This presentation describes research aimed at exploring structural systems that respond dynamically to loading changes by using active dampers to modify stiffness in a frame to resist resulting deformations. Two modular energy efficient residential design concepts that demonstrate applications for low income housing are underway. Additionally, a proposed egress path building code revision for the International Residential Code to improve occupant safely has been developed, and it will show a new fire safety device in development to enhance smoke evacuation, exit path illumination linked to fire detection.

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Poster Presentations

“Digital Shingling”
Andreea Vasile,  BS.Arch Candidate, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
James Stevens, M.Arch, Assistant Professor, Architecture

There is a rich and tested way of designing and building structures evident in vernacular buildings in every region of the world.  These buildings have been built for hundreds of years and are still built with the knowledge of craft from their predecessors. However, in the post-digital world these traditions have been diminished by a desire for the new form over new processes that build on the craft tradition. This dilemma has informed the research to seek new ways of blending the use of digital technologies, while preserving tradition. The focus of this research is the craft tradition of wood shingling in Romania.  A computer script is being developed to transform the limitations of the traditional methods and to leverage the advantages of fabrication. A primary outcome of the research will be tested during the makeLab workshop that will take place in Romania during the week of July 19-25, where several students from LTU will engage with students from “Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism in Bucharest. Each student will fabricate a final design generated with parametric tools and fabricated on a CNC mill. The project will be created with the precision, speed and the tireless repetitive operation CNC technologies offers but it will be strongly influenced by the guiding precedent of the traditional Romanian shingling.

“Digital Tools Abroad”
Brendon Veldboom, BS.Arch Candidate, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
James Stevens, M.Arch, Assistant Professor, Architecture

The objective of the research is to better understand the tools used in digital fabrication and how to make them available to students in emerging economies. I have been working in conjunction with the makeLab, who has made multiple trips to Polis University in Tirana, Albania. The focus of these trips is to address the challenges and opportunities of on-site digital fabrication through hands-on workshops. With the research grant I have received, I have begun to build a more robust, reliable Computer Numeric Control (CNC) milling machine to bring to the workshop this upcoming summer. When digital fabrication was first introduced, the tools were extremely expensive, and out of reach for most design firms. In recent years, availability of parts and information have allowed more people access to the capabilities of digital fabrication. The new CNC expands on the school’s existing equipment, and will open new learning and entrepreneurial opportunities for their students. The end goal for this research is to hopefully gain a better understanding of the practice of digital fabrication and the design possibilities that are created when on-site digital production is available.

“Evaluating Health Impact Assessments: Impact on Urban and Community Design”
Joongsub Kim, PhD, AIA, AICP, Professor, Architecture
Ramya Swayamprakash, M.Urban Design Candidate, GRA

BACKGROUND: Recent literature on health has begun to report on the growing connection between urban policies and health policies. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an important tool for advancing health and equity. HIAs help inform decision makers and other stakeholders about the likely health impacts associated with a proposed public decision (e.g., proposed policy, program, plan, or project), and they provide information that serves as the basis of recommendations for ensuring that the decision improves health outcomes, especially for the most vulnerable members of society. While HIA has been increasingly used in urban design, its effectiveness is not well documented. PURPOSE: This study investigates typologies of design and policy recommendations and health impacts currently in use in HIA, and evaluates the successes of HIA in raising the awareness of health issues associated with community design. METHODS: The study uses an extensive literature survey of peer-reviewed articles and publications. RESULTS: An in-depth review of literature revealed three emerging topics in HIA-related fields: (1) HIA, Placemaking and Urban Design (focusing on the impact of HIA on placemaking in urban design); (2) HIA and planning (focusing on application of HIA to planning); (3) and evaluating HIA for cities (focusing on assessing the role and effectiveness of HIA in city-making). Further investigation of these topics helped identify several themes that run through each topic. Themes explored in the study for Topic 1 include looking at how healthy places are made; the use of GIS technology in HIA and community participation in design and HIA. Themes for Topic 2 include questions of equity and HIA as well as decision making and typologies of HIA; and the interdisciplinary relationship between HIA and urban ecology. Themes for Topic 3 include methodological investigations and the future and challenges for HIA in cities. DISCUSSION: The study recommends several research questions and hypotheses for further study through interviews with designers and HIA professionals.

“Lamentation Scenes 1100-1944”
Michael Rybak, M.Arch
Melinda Weinstein, PhD, Associate Professor, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Lior Shamir, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science

In this poster, I compare and contrast "lamentation scenes" from different cultures and eras, 1100-1944.  I have collected 142 lamentation images so far that I am analyzing through software developed by Dr. Lior Shamir.  I am interested in why there was an intensification in the production of lamentation scenes in particular regions and eras. I am also interested in the techniques used for rendering lamentation scenes, and the meanings of symbols used in lamentation scenes.

“Solar Orientation for Thermal and Illumination Studies in Architecture”
Martin Schwartz, M.Arch, AIA, Associate Professor and Associate Chair of Architecture
Janice K. Means, MSE Mechanical Engineering, PE, LEED AP, Associate Professor, Architecture

This poster will detail the process and deliverables for the Fall 2012 Faculty Seed Grant, “Solar Orientation for Thermal and Illumination Studies in Architecture”, conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. This seed grant enabled the principal investigators to: (1) Provide LTU’s Architecture and Architectural Engineering students with instrumentation to assist in the understanding of solar heat gain and daylighting; the intentional input, distribution and manipulation of natural solar light to illuminate the interior of a building; (2) Visit the Louis I. Kahn archives at the University of Pennsylvania to read project files and to examine the original Consulate drawings to further enhance the exploration of how one outstanding architect applied daylighting principles in his design; and (3) extend the body of research on two significant buildings and how their architects, Jorn Utzon and Louis I. Kahn designed them for daylighting applying multiple strategies. For the first deliverable, a heliodon was constructed with the participation of a graduate student assistant. This instrument, although simple, was critical for analyses, allowing the investigators to replicate the angles of the sun, anywhere in the world at any time and date, onto a physical architectural model and to measure illumination into a structure. This instrument is now available for students to assist with analyzing and constructively modifying their architectural models to optimize the use of natural sunlight within buildings. For the second deliverable, the heliodon was used to analyze and provide insight on how two architects, Jorn Utzon and Louis I. Kahn, each designed a building using daylighting strategies. The two buildings studied were (1) the home known as Can Lis by the architect Jorn Utzon and (2) the U.S. Consulate project proposed (but unbuilt) for Luanda, Angola by architect Louis I. Kahn. This presentation will include an assessment of the usability of the student-built heliodon and under what conditions computer simulation may provide superior analytical results.

“University-Based Public Interest Design Labs”
Meaghan Markiewicz,  M.Arch Candidate, GRA
Edward Orlowski, M.Arch., AIA, LEED AP, Associate Professor

BACKGROUND: The introduction of advocacy and public interest design into architectural design studios by Professor Orlowski has been proven a successful model.  The students are given the opportunity to work on community-based/public-interest projects and interact with a real client.  However, architectural design studios are also in need of expansion and additional resources.  Since architectural design studios occur over the course of one semester, the duration of student engagement on assigned projects limits student work from reaching its full potential.  The nature of this type of studio course has indicated a need for a separate entity to support assigned projects beyond a single semester. PURPOSE: This research will be used to support the creation of a university-based/public-interest design lab. Through acquired research on logistical aspects of similar labs across multiple United States universities, this research provides a guide for creating a lab framework at Lawrence Tech. METHODS: This topic has been investigated through online database information, completed surveys, and personal interviews with design lab directors. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the findings is also used to draw conclusions. RESULTS: Understanding the logistical barriers and experiences from other university-based labs found through the collection of information has led to conclusions regarding best practices among similar labs. DISCUSSION: In support of creating a research framework focused on logistics, an analysis of how the various labs relate to each other has been explored. The reoccurring themes among similar settings will be evaluated for their potential application to the context of a Lawrence Tech based public interest design lab. 

“UPRS [sw]LAB: NZE Research and Design”
Constance C. Bodurow, AAIA, AICP, CUD, Associate Professor, Director, studio[Ci], College of Architecture and Design
Donald Carpenter, PhD, PE, LEED AP, Professor, Civil Engineering, Director, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute, College of Engineering
Robert Fletcher, PhD, Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering, Director, Alternative Energy Program, College of Engineering
Charlie O'Geen, M.Arch, College Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture and Design
Alin Paul Codreanu, BS in Architecture Candidate, College of Architecture and Design, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient, RA, studio[Ci]Rohit Arnold Papali, MS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering, GRA, studio[Ci]
Haibin Tan, M.Arch, College of Architecture and Senior Designer and Project Manager, studio[Ci]
Christopher Bragg, MS in Civil Engineering Candidate, Vice President, American Society of Civil Engineers LTU Student Chapter, GRA, Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute, Department of Civil Engineering
Andrew Bradford, BS Architecture, College of Architecture and Design, Designer, studio[Ci]

BACKGROUND. In fall 2014, I was awarded the Undergraduate Presidential Research Scholarship. I have been working with my Faculty mentor, Prof. Constance Bodurow since I joined studio[Ci] as a Research Assistant (RA) for the [sw]LAB NZE Prototype Project with the Detroit Public Schools (DPS). PURPOSE. My goal is to learn more about NZE research and design and contribute to the construction of a project in Detroit. I am also interested in gaining skills regarding community process and engagement. METHODS. In fall 2014, I served as a TA in ID5 focusing on design/development of the NZE Prototype. I supported ID5 students with their engagement with the community and producing presentation boards. As a RA, I supported the design process, bringing CAD, creative design, model building, and construction knowledge to the project in order to deliver a high quality prototype module.  My role also included maintaining a social media presence through blog posts and site updates. I supported the community process with the Tireman neighborhood by helping organize events, supporting logistics and coordinating all partners. RESULTS. studio[Ci] plans to break ground during May 2015 and hopes to finish the prototype in time for the end of the 2014-2015 school year. These deadlines imply sustained effort by our team, including process with DPS, construction documentation, installation and evaluation. At the end of the construction period we seek to have a fully functional, replicable solar/water harvesting prototype that will generate energy, educational, financial and ecological opportunities to the Tireman Community. OUTCOMES. Through collaboration with the Tireman Community I understood the impact constituents can have on a Project through their voice in Community Meetings. I learned that cross collaboration between Colleges within LTU can produce amazing results through passionate contribution from all team members. I also learned more about research and construction documentation by leading the team in Phase 1 development.

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COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

Oral Presentations

“#Citizen (InsertNameHere)”
Serge Danielson-Francois, MS Ed Tech, Grad Cert Writing for the Digital Age Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Cory Dixon, Catholic University of America, PhD candidate in Systematic Theology 

 

BACKGROUND: We have spent the last three years promoting civic engagement in a secondary school population of just over 800 students through curricular and co-curricular activities that leverage the power of social media. Our students have come to view themselves as participants in global narratives for which they must develop deeper and more meaningful literacy's. PURPOSE: Action research by a committed professional learning community of educators, students and community members has yielded useful insights into the motivation and habits of adolescent "thinkers, doers, creators and pioneers". These insights have been integrated into every instantiation of our freshman Digital Citizenship initiative. METHODS: We have relied primarily on a theoretical model developed during the primary researcher's MET thesis research at Lawrence Tech under the supervision of Pamela Lowry, PhD, Associate Professor, Mathematics and Computer Science. The research attempted to plot and analyze student trajectories along an orthogonal plane that correlates an increase in intersubjective knowledge to an increase in civic-minded action. RESULTS: Substantive and detailed blogs, tweets, and comparable social media participatory acts constitute the bulk of the artifacts gathered to date. There is also evidence of adolescents engaging adults in protracted conversations (more than three interactions) about issues of conscience, such as net neutrality, campus sexual assault, amateur vs. professional status of top tier college athletes, collective bargaining agreements, and small market teams in professional sports. There is also a multi-year student run and student moderated YouTube Channel "In Your Community" that complements a local cable access program of the same title started by our students. DISCUSSION: We will extrapolate key trends and areas for further research in light of the initial data that we have collected thus far. The evidence suggests that adolescents can be encouraged to develop into an embodied, empathetic, and "muscular" citizenship. Our students take seriously their role in the consent of the governed premise at the heart of our republic.

“Detroit Poetries: Field Notes”
Paul Jaussen, PhD, Assistant Professor, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Sarah Fewkes, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate

This work-in-progress documents the current state of poetry in the Detroit metro area.  Commissioned by the online journal Jacket2 (www.jacket2.org), this project is based on field research in poetry communities, events, publishers, and archives.  Project findings are being published online in a series of short articles.  The Jacket2 online archive of field research serves as a repository for future scholars seeking to offer a more detailed account of poetic practice in and around Detroit.  This presentation offers an overview of the work to date, and engages attendees with primary artifacts collected during the project research.

“Fiction in the Brain”
Gonzalo Munévar, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

In this presentation, I will review recent research in psychology and neuroscience that investigates the impact of literary fiction on our social lives. In a study by David Comer Kidd and Emanuele Castano, participants who read literary fiction performed significantly better on tests of Theory of Mind (ToM) than did participants who instead read popular kinds of fiction.  Since ToM allows us to navigate complex social relationships, literary fiction improves skills critical to our survival, reproduction, and general wellbeing, precisely because of its artistic characteristics. For Raymond Mar and Keith Oatley, literary fiction is a simulation of social or psychological reality, not unlike a mathematical simulation or model, i.e., an abstraction.   Moreover, the literary writer’s craft evident in the felicitous choice of detail is not only compatible with abstraction but facilitates it, for such detail, among other things, conjures up the rich imagery of the story.  As they point out, “[t]he brain regions activated during observation of these stimuli are the same as those engaged during other theory-of-mind tasks.” Previous fMRI research we have conducted on the neural instantiation of the self lends experimental support to Oatley’s contention that literature can be conceptualized as a cognitive and emotional simulation (through processes of identification). In another fMRI study, Gregory S. Berns examined the brains of university students reading a novel.  The results suggest that the connectivity of the brain changed as a consequence of the reading.  Some of these changes remained even for at least five days after the reading. Djikic et al. in an experiment involving a Chekhov story found that emotional changes created by the story led to changes in personality traits.  I will make use of Brian Boyd evolutionary view of literature as a kind of cognitive play to explain this scientific discovery of the value of literary fiction.

“From STEM to STEAM:  Computer-Aided Research in Art History”
Melinda Weinstein, PhD, Associate Professor, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Lior Shamir, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Dean

This paper provides an overview of an experiment in progress at LTU that introduces computer science skills into the competencies gained in a humanities classroom.  The experiment is funded by an AAC&U TIDES grant.  As Dr. Lior Shamir and others have shown, “Computers are able to perform the task of analyzing art and can expand on the way fine art has been examined, appreciated, and studied in the past.”  In World Masterpieces I, a freshman-sophomore level course required of all students at LTU, students study literature and art from the ancient world to the eighteenth century. The experimental protocol, a “Research-based computer approach to art history”, developed by Dr. Shamir, shows students how to process digital files of medieval and renaissance paintings with free and downloadable tools from the internet such as Irfanview and wndchrm. Students can then measure similarities between groups of paintings, between different painters, different schools of art, and changes over an artist’s lifetime. While the aim of the grant is to stimulate interest and competency in computer science among women and minority students in non-STEM disciplines, I argue in this paper that the experiment cultivates competency in art historical practices and humanistic inquiry among STEM students.  With the integration of computer science in the humanities classroom, all students reap the benefit of a deeper engagement with art.

“How to Recognize Con-specifics and their Motions?”
Na Yu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science
Ginette Hupé, PhD, Biology, University of Ottawa, Canada
Charles Garfinkle, MS Physics, University of Ottawa, Canada
John E. Lewis, PhD, Associate Professor, Biology, University of Ottawa, Canada
André Longtin, PhD, Professor, Physics, University of Ottawa, Canada

Effectively processing information from a sensory scene is essential for animal survival. Motion in a sensory scene complicates this task by dynamically modifying signal properties. To address this general issue, we focus on weakly electric fish. Each fish produces a weak electrical carrier signal with a characteristic frequency. Electroreceptors on its skin encode the modulations of this carrier caused by nearby objects and other animals, enabling this fish to thrive in its nocturnal environment. Little is known about how swimming movements influence natural electrosensory scenes, specifically in the context of detection and identification of, and communication with conspecifics. Using recordings involving free-swimming fish, we characterize the amplitude modulations of the carrier signal arising from small groups of fish. The differences between individual frequencies (beats) are prominent features of these signals, with the number of beats reflecting the number of neighbors. We also find that the distance and motion of a free-swimming fish are represented in a slow modulation of the beat at the receiving fish. Modeling shows that these stimulus features can be effectively encoded in the activity of the electroreceptors, but that encoding quality of some features can be degraded by motion, suggesting that active swimming could hinder conspecific identification.

“Salt of the Earth: A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in the Microbiology Laboratory Focused on Discovery of Halotolerant Soil Microbes in Suburban Detroit”
Souheila Hachem, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate
Christina Nagle, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences

Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) positively impact the development of scientific critical thinking skills, especially for women and minorities. At LTU, we also hope that these experiences will help our students increase their acceptance rate into summer research experiences for undergraduates (REUs) without overtaxing the time of our limited faculty. I decided to modify my sophomore/junior level microbiology lab to be a CURE. Many communities use salt to treat icy roads in the winter. Several studies have been conducted to determine the impact that this salt has on wetlands and in a few cases their flora and fauna. However, no studies have been published investigating the impact that road salt has on soil microbes. Microbes which are tolerant of or require salt for growth are termed haloterant and halophilic, respectively. There is great interest in microbes which can grow under extreme environmental conditions (extremophiles) for basic biological interest and as a possible source for novel biochemistry. In this CURE, students isolated soil microbes from along the shoulder of Northwestern Highway. We cultured the microbes on medium with both low salt and moderate levels of salt. Each student chose several isolated colonies and characterized their biochemistry and morphology. Finally, the students identified their microbe via 16S rRNA sequencing. We isolated and characterized five microbes, all of which were moderately halotolerant, but not halophilic. All five isolates belonged to the genus bacillus. Students were engaged and enjoyed the project. I plan to continue and expand this CURE in subsequent microbiology labs.

“tDCS Stimulation of Wernicke’s Area: Top-down Modulation and Language Comprehension”
Phillip McMurray, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Gonzalo Munévar, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

BACKGROUND: Humans have a mental lexicon that easily stores more than 50,000 words for the average adult. By the processes of lexical access, selection, and integration, which work via a top-down modulation of semantic association, we make sense of our mental representations of words and produce verbal representations through speech. METHODS: In this preliminary study, participants read aloud sentences as electrodes placed on their temporal cortex delivered small amounts of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Occasionally, trick words were placed within the text with the goal of being misread. For example, the word “defiantly” may be written but the semantic associations between other words tricks the reader into reading it as “definitely.” There were six conditions delivered across two sessions (polarity). PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to examine whether or not anodal stimulation will cause a decline in reading performance. The hypothesis of this study was that the mode of stimulation is inversely related to the frequency of misreading trick words because the stimulation affects top-down modulation. The anodal stimulation (positive) would cause a decline in reading performance accuracy while the cathodal stimulation (negative) would cause an increase reading performance accuracy. The sham setting (not actually sending stimulation) would not affect the performance. RESULTS: Main findings were that both anodal and cathodal stimulation increased reading performance accuracy. There was an accuracy decline in both post-stimulation conditions. DISCUSSION: We propose an explanation for why cathodal stimulation improves reading performance.  Surprisingly, both anodal and cathodal stimulation equally enhanced reading performance, which contradicts previous literature on tDCS. The findings to date have produced interesting results that we hope will be strengthened upon completion of the full study.

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Poster Presentations

“A Determination of BPA and Phthalates in the Clinton River and Anchor Bay Watersheds”
Nicole Villeneuve, PhD, Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Katie Wheeler, BS in Environmental Chemistry Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences

Natural water samples from three various locations in the Clinton River and Anchor Bay Watersheds, as well as two samples from the Delhi wastewater treatment plant, were collected and analyzed for bisphenol-A and phthalates using EPA method 525.2, which involves passing the water samples through a liquid-solid extraction cartridge. BPA and phthalates are commonly found in plastics and are known endocrine disruptors in aquatic organisms. Some phthalates have also been classified as probable human carcinogens. According to the EPA, current exposure levels to humans are below potential health effects levels, but research is continuing to develop to prevent higher exposure and possible health risks. A GC-MS was used for quantification and identification of the compounds being observed. The detection limit on the GC-MS for all compounds was also determined. To reduce risk of background contamination, only glass materials were used for the extraction apparatus and storage containers, including the solvents involved in this study.

“Algorithm and Application: Image Searching Using NVIDIA GPU”
Rodrigo Sanchez-Vicarte, BS in Computer Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Yin Wang, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

Image search is often the most inconvenient way to search, yielding useless images and countless irrelevant images. Amazon.com's current implementation actually requires employees to look at images and determine the product. Image search has become incredibly viable as high quality public images have become increasingly available online. Our project aims to create an image search algorithm for product searches. An image search algorithm for products would allow for quick, hassle free, searching of products without unique IDs, like barcodes. Using Amazon's product images alone would create a massive database to search, and allow a search algorithm to return product information and even an option to purchase. Our project aims to create an image search algorithm using NVIDIA CUDA because CUDA is designed for parallel computing. Parallel computing will allow for quickly searching thousands of images by simultaneously comparing the chosen image with multiple images. CUDA is also becoming increasingly available, any computer with an NVIDIA graphics card can run CUDA programs, making the search algorithm incredibly portable- even across Windows, Macs, and Linux; as of recently, even mobile devices with CUDA, like the NVIDIA Shield tablet, are becoming available. Due to its parallel nature, a CUDA program can be run on multiple graphics cards, making it incredibly scalable; the same code would run on a server with a few CUDA devices and a tablet with a single, less powerful, CUDA device. Search using images is difficult because of the large volume of data to compare, where a string has only a few bytes, an image typically has a few megabytes. Comparing thousands of images requires dedicating a very powerful computer for a few hours, however, using CUDA and an efficient search algorithm, we aim to change that.

“Applied Mathematics at LTU: Teaching Math through Research using Course-Based Research Experience (CRE)”
Patrick Nelson, PhD, Associate Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

This presentation describes the new focus of the Department of Math & Computer Science to teach mathematics through research using course-based research experience (CRE). The CRE approach introduces such concepts as data fitting, phase plane analysis, model development and applications, and software competency (e.g., Matlab), and applies them to such applications as logistic models, spring-mass systems, predator-prey, diabetes, and HIV. With this approach students are active in building a tool kit of research concepts that will improve student knowledge, help students apply their new knowledge to practical research ideas of their own, and benefit students in all of their studies at LTU and in their future careers.

“Characterization of Microbial Communities in the Pitcher Fluid of the Carnivorous Plant Sarracenia Purpurea”
Sarah Fewkes, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
David Stroshein, BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Jeff Morrissette, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences

Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use pitfall traps that are made from modified leaves that form cone-shaped fluid-filled traps that animals slip into and cannot escape.  The animals quickly die from drowning or lack of O2 and are digested with enzymes either produced by the plant itself or by mutualistic organisms.  To reduce potential competition for nutrients, or possibly for pathogen resistance, CPPs would benefit from an ability to control the microbial colonization of their traps.  Our study focuses on the complex ecological interaction occurring within the microbiome of pitchers.  Specifically, we are comparing the microbial communities found within "new-world" pitchers of the species Sarracenia purpurea to "old-world" pitchers of the genus Nepenthes.  We are also characterizing the microbial communities from CPPs grown in the laboratory with those growing locally in the wild.  After collecting CPP fluid, we streaked microbial isolates multiple times to ensure that bacteria represent individual colonies.  Genomic DNA was isolated from overnight cultures.  After PCR amplification the 16s ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced to determine the species of bacteria present in each pitcher fluid.  The diversity of microbes found in pitcher fluid, and the ability of the plants to influence this community will be discussed.

“Computer Analysis of Digital Sky Survey Data Based on Manual Classification”
Evan Kuminski, BS in Math & Computer Science Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Lior Shamir, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

As current and future digital sky surveys such as SDSS, LSST, DES, Pan-STARRS and Gaia create increasingly massive databases containing millions of galaxies, there is a growing need to efficiently analyze these data. Although manual analysis has been effective at smaller scales, this may become insufficient due to the extremely vast pipelines of astronomical images generated by these surveys. Some efforts have been made to classify galaxies by their morphology through citizen science on a larger scale than individual or small groups of scientists can. Though these citizen science efforts, such as Zooniverse, have helped obtain reasonably accurate morphological information about large numbers of galaxies, they still cannot scale to provide complete analysis of the billions of galaxy images that will be collected by future ventures such as LSST. Since existing forms of manual classification cannot scale to the masses of data collected by digital sky surveys, it is clear that some form of automation of the data analysis will be required, and will work either independently or in combination with human analysis such as citizen science. Here we describe a computer vision method that can automatically analyze galaxy images and deduce galaxy morphology. Experiments using Galaxy Zoo 2 data show that the performance of the method increases as the degree of agreement between the citizen scientists gets higher, providing a cleaner dataset. For several morphological features, such as the spirality of the galaxy, the algorithm agreed with the citizen scientists ~95% of the time. However, the method failed to analyze some morphological features, such as the number of spiral arms, which provided accuracy of just ~36%. Based on these results, we have used a similar technique to look at the spirality of unknown galaxies, and are in the process of analyzing the accuracy of the results.

“Computer Analysis of the Progression of Picasso’s Artistic Style”
Amanda Burcroff, BS Candidate, Undeclared, College of Arts and Sciences
Lior Shamir, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

In the past few years computers have demonstrated efficacy in performing quantitative analysis of visual art. Such analysis can reveal new knowledge about art, and provide a completely new way of studying art history. Here we applied quantitative and computational analysis to study the artistic style of Pablo Picasso and its progression through time. Experimental results show strong correlation between the visual content and the time of painting, allowing the computer to automatically estimate the time of creation. The analysis also reveals that the most significant marker for the time of creation is the fractal structure of the painting, demonstrating that Picasso changed his use of fractals over the years. In this poster we describe the methodology applied to the analysis of the art of Pablo Picasso, and the changes in his artistic style throughout his lifetime as deduced by mathematical and quantitative analysis.

“Course-Based Research Experience (CRE): Social Network Mining ”
Mohamed O. Haiek, BS in Math & Computer Science Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Robert Southern, MS in Math & Computer Science Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Yin Wang, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences

This project is from the course-based research experiences (CREs) that occur in the undergraduate Math & Computer Science course, Social Network Mining. Students investigated the algorithms that can: (1) obtain large amounts of social network data, such as the data in Facebook, Amazon, etc., and (2) analyze the data and conduct simulations. The algorithms we developed have the potential for big data (large graph) mining.

“Keep Me Posted! A Multidimensional Analysis of Facebook Updates”
Raven Delph, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Joshua Campbell, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

Facebook is by far the most used social network in the world. Active use of Facebook mainly consists in the so called “status updates”, in which users can upload text, pictures and videos. This study aimed at analyzing how the subject, the emotional connotation, the medium used, the originality and the self-centeredness of status updates vary according to demographic factors like gender, occupation, and age of the poster. We analyzed more than 3000 status updates posted by Facebook friends (the posters) of 19 students of the introductory psychology course (the scorers). Each scorer coded 250 status updates posted by his/her Facebook friends by labelling the posts according to several categories. To preserve and protect anonymity, the identity of the posters and the status updates were known only by the scorer and unknown to anybody else. Results show that Facebook status updates significantly vary in subject, emotional connotation and structure as a function of demographic factors like gender, age and occupation of the poster. Our findings are discussed in light of the main media psychology theories.

“Modeling Dopamine Neurons”
Na Yu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences
Carmen Canavier, PhD, Professor and Vice Chair for Research, Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisana State University Health Science Center

Midbrain dopamine neurons exhibit a novel type of bursting that we call “inverted square wave bursting” when exposed to Ca2+-activated small conductance (SK) K+ channel blockers in vitro. This type of bursting has three phases: hyperpolarized silence, spiking, and depolarization block. We find that two slow variables are required for this type of bursting, and we show that the three-dimensional bifurcation diagram for inverted square wave bursting is a folded surface with upper (depolarized) and lower (hyperpolarized) branches. The activation of the L-type Ca2+ channel largely supports the separation between these branches. Spiking is initiated at a saddle node on an invariant circle bifurcation at the folded edge of the lower branch and the trajectory spirals around the unstable fixed points on the upper branch. Spiking is terminated at a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, but the trajectory remains on the upper branch until it hits a saddle node on the upper folded edge and drops to the lower branch. The two slow variables contribute as follows. A second, slow component of sodium channel inactivation is largely responsible for the initiation and termination of spiking. The slow activation of the ether-a-go-go-related (ERG) K+ current is largely responsible for termination of the depolarized plateau. The mechanisms and slow processes identified herein may contribute to bursting as well as entry into and recovery from the depolarization block to different degrees in different subpopulations of dopamine neurons in vivo.

“Multipurpose Medicine: The Synthesis and Medicinal Activity of Novel Warfarin Analogs”
Souheila N. Hachem, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Shannon C. Timmons, PhD, Assistant Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

Warfarin is a synthetic analog of the natural product dicumarol, the causative agent of hemorrhagic sweet clover disease.  Also used as a rodenticide, this widely used anticoagulant drug functions as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase.  Although the anticoagulant effect of hundreds of warfarin analogs has been extensively studied, less attention has been focused on warfarin analogs' alternative medicinal potential as anticancer, antiviral, and antioxidant agents.  Progress on the synthesis of a series of novel warfarin analogs using Michael-type condensation chemistry will be reported.  Library members will be screened for a range of medicinal activities with the goal of further elucidating warfarin's full therapeutic potential.

“Raspberry Pi Based System Synchronization”
Rodrigo Sanchez-Vicarte, BS in Computer Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Changgong Zhou, PhD, Assistant Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

BACKGROUND: In the Laser Research Lab of the Natural Sciences Department, nanoparticles’ motion under optical forces is investigated. In the current experiment setup, a flow controller regulates nanoparticles into a glass chamber exposed to a focused laser beam that exerts optical forces on the nanoparticles. The motion of the particles is recorded by two CCD cameras at 60fps for analysis. In the current system, all apparatuses operate independently and continuously. For instance, the CCD cameras keeps recording images while the glass chamber is waiting for the flow controller to feed a new patch of particles. This practice leads to a large number of unnecessary images, wastes storage space and, most importantly, slows down image processing. METHODS: In this project, we will implement a RaspberryPi based control system to synchronize the operation of all apparatuses in order to improve experiment efficiency and reduce unnecessary data. A RaspberryPi is a small, complete Linux computer, which has several USB ports and general purpose input/output pins (GPIO). With modified open source drivers or special drivers created for the apparatuses, RaspberryPi can communicate with the apparatuses and synchronize their operation. In addition, RaspberryPi will be used to capture images from the CCD cameras and store them into an external hard drive. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In this presentation, we will present our system control flow chart and report current progress to date.

“The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Hand Exercisers in Building Muscle Strength”
Samantha Rohrback, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate
Jeff Morrissette, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences

Hand and wrist injuries are one of the most commonly occurring injuries among athletes.  Rehabilitation and recovery from these injuries often requires the use of physical therapy exercises designed to build muscle strength. The three most common hand exercisers used in today’s physical therapy offices are Cando’s Theraputty™, Cando’s Digi-flex™, and Hand Helper’s Ultimate Hand Helper™. The goal of our study was to compare the efficacy of these three devices. Twenty one college-age volunteers were divided into three groups and given one of the three hand exercisers. After we measured each subject’s baseline parameters of forearm muscle tone, maximum hand-grip force, and time to forearm muscle fatigue, each subject began a routine of hand exercises using their device. Subjects exercised twice a day for a total of two months with the number of reps and sets adjusted between groups so that each subject performed the same total amount of work during exercise. Every two weeks during the exercise routine each subject’s muscle parameters were measured. Our findings will be discussed.

“The Impact of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Flour on Endocrine Disruption”
Souheila Hachem, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Bridget Moricz, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Samantha Rohrback, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that negatively affect the endocrine system by causing an increase or decrease in hormonal activity, often leading to abnormal health in an individual. The endocrine system is vital for the production of hormones that are transported throughout the body to perform their necessary functions; however, in the presence of a disruptor, hormone levels may deviate from normal. One endocrine disruptor commonly found in rice is inorganic arsenic. Arsenic is present in many rice and rice products with varying levels documented for different types of rice. Although arsenic levels in rice have been determined, we were eager to determine if arsenic from rice would alter levels of estrogen and testosterone in H295R cells.  Thus, arsenic was extracted from both brown and white rice flour with water.  Then the cytotoxicity of this extract was tested on the H295R cell line.  We then exposed H295R cells to non-toxic levels of rice flour extract and conducted a competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine the amount of estrogen and testosterone produced. The results of the cytotoxicity assay and enzyme immunoassay will be presented.

“The Impact of Deodorant on Testosterone and Estrogen Production in H295R Cells”
Chase Gucwa, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Delaney Large BS in Chemical Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

The endocrine system makes use of glands to produce hormones to regulate normal bodily functions. Chemicals known as endocrine disruptors can alter hormone production which can have lasting effects on the body such as developmental and neurological changes. It has been suggested that endocrine disruptors are present in many of the cosmetic products used daily, including deodorant. The specific aim of this project is to determine if liquid deodorant could change the amount of testosterone and estrogen produced by H295R cells. To investigate the effects of deodorant on testosterone and estrogen production, we purified the deodorant using filter sterilization. We then evaluated the cytotoxicity of our purified deodorant to determine which concentration would be ideal to investigate estrogen and testosterone production. An enzyme immunoassay was performed to evaluate estrogen and testosterone production within the cells. The results of this analysis will be presented.

“The Impact of Electronic Cigarette Solvent with or without Nicotine on Testosterone and Estrogen Production in H295R Cells”
Basheer Bazoun, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Christina Nagle, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate, College of Arts and Sciences
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences

Electronic cigarettes are currently rising in use faster than the research can keep up.  Recent evidence shows that E-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional cigarettes.  However, these products have not been tested for long-term, chronic exposure. One possible target of such chronic exposure is the endocrine system.   This system is composed of glands that produce hormones to regulate many functions of the body, such as reproduction, sleep, and metabolism.  An endocrine disruptor can have adverse health effects and alter the functions of the endocrine system. Propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) are the two primary solvents used in electronic cigarettes. This experiment investigated the effects of PG and VG on the production of testosterone and estrogen—two key endocrine hormones. Based on previous studies, traditional cigarettes have a negative effect on the endocrine system. In order to test the claims that E-cigarettes are safer than traditional cigarettes with regard to the endocrine system, the E-cig solvents (with and without nicotine), were filter sterilized and tested for cytotoxicity.  It was determined that the H295R cells could tolerate a 1:1000 dilution of a PG/VG/media mixture.  The production of estrogen and testosterone was then quantified using a competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA).  The results of this study will be presented.

“The Unconscious Pleasure of Drinking Sugar: A Perceptual Study on the Discriminability of Sugar from Artificial Sweeteners in Carbonate Soft Drinks”
Macee Logerstedt, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Souheila Hachem, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate
Katelyn Steven, BS in Molecular and Cell Biology Candidate
John Rizk, BS Information Technology
Derek Diamond, BS Math & Computer Science
Luv Lodhia, BS Business Management, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Claire Huddas, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Ryan Fernandez, BS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, is often considered as a main contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity in the USA. This study tested the discriminability of sugar from aspartame in 14 commercially available carbonate soft drinks. In a double blind test, 40 students of Lawrence Technological University were asked to rate the taste of 14 beverages in terms of sweetness, likeability, and to recognize if the drinks contain sugar or aspartame. Ratings were made exclusively on the base of drink taste, as color and drink names were unknown to the subjects. Main results show that (1), Accuracy in the discrimination task of SSBs from ASBs was poor; (2), Accuracy varied drastically between subjects; and (3) In spite of participants’ low recognition performance, likableness was significantly higher for SSBs than for ASBs.

“Where Was It? Does Electrical Brain Stimulation Affect Spatial Working Memory?”
Rachel Anderson, BS in Psychology Candidate, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, Presidential Undergraduate Research Award Recipient
Christopher Lilla, BS Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication
Gonzalo Munévar, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication

Remembering the location of objects is a crucial ability in human daily life. Contrasting findings in visual and auditory working memory debate upon the hypothesis whether associating the location and the identity of stimuli depends or not on the sensory modality of the input. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) can be used as a technique to investigate mechanisms of working memory. tDCS delivers a low and constant current to the brain via small electrodes to an area of interest and can affect cognitive processing. This project includes two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the role of sensory modality in the incidental encoding of stimulus location during the voluntary memorization of the identity sequence of items. LTU students were asked to memorize sequences of either environmental sounds (ES), spoken words (SW), pictures (P) or written words (WW). Participants were then presented with new sequences including old and new items and asked to recognize the ones that have been previously presented. Crucially, they were also asked to indicate from which side of the screen (visual stimuli) or from which channel (sounds) the old stimuli were presented. In the second experiment we tested whether electrical stimulation affects memory performance as a result of the position of the electrodes on the head. The two locations under scrutiny are the dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex (associated to location processing) and the ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex (associated to identity processing). Participants were equipped with the tDCS and performed the ES and P tasks before (sham stimulation) and after 20 minutes of tDCS. The main results of Experiment 1 indicate that the accuracy in the object location memory task was significantly lower for the auditory stimuli (environmental sounds and spoken words) than for pictures. Experiment 2 is still in progress.

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Oral Presentations

“Application of Piezoelectric Polymer Film to Sensing and Actuation within Microfluidic Systems”
Michael Moeller, BS Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Mansoor Nasir, PhD, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
James A. Mynderse, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering 

Piezoelectric materials are those in which mechanical stress results in an accumulation of charge and an accumulation of charge results in mechanical stress. These materials can then be used as sensors or actuators, depending upon the strength of the piezoelectric effect and the application. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a thermoplastic which exhibits piezoelectricity after poling. Polymer substrates are popular for cheap, flexible and biocompatible microfluidic devices which suggests a role for PVDF in both sensing and actuating microfluidic systems. The thermoplastic nature of PVDF allows for the film to be cast in a structure and then selectively poled in actuator or sensor regions. Before use in microfluidics, the piezoelectric behavior of PVDF must be well characterized. Initial sensing experiments demonstrated good agreement between PVDF strain measurements and those from conventional strain gages. Actuation experiments showed promise in the use of PVDF for mixing fluids within a channel. Ongoing work will build on these successes to both sense and actuate fluidic channels.

“Changes in Pavement Friction Levels during Winter Maintenance Operations”
Nishantha Bandara, PhD, PE, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering

Loss of tire-pavement friction during winter storms causes severe safety hazard to the motoring public. Every year more than 117,000 people are injured and more than 1,300 people are killed on snowy, slushy or icy roadways. The coefficient of friction between vehicle tire and pavement can be dramatically increased by winter maintenance activities such as snow plowing, deicing, anti-icing and sanding of the roadway. Although in the United States friction testing is not primarily used for winter performance measures, a number of European countries and Japan use this technology regularly. Friction can be measured/predicted using three methods: predicting friction using climate, traffic and other roadway conditions; direct friction measurements using an extra wheel installed on vehicles; or by traction control systems. NCHRP Web Document 136 lists three operational uses of friction measuring devices in winter operations: they can be used to measure quality of winter maintenance operations, can be used as a source of road user information to inform motorists of hazardous locations, and also to determine amount of de-icing materials used on the roadway. In this study, pavement friction behind snow plows was measured during different snow events. The measured friction values were compared to base friction levels obtained during the summer months along the same roadway. As a pilot study, I-96 roadway in Livingston County, Michigan was selected and friction data were collected during three snow storms during 2013-2014 winter season. The preliminary results show the changes in pavement friction during different types of winter storms and effect of winter maintenance operations.

“Development of a Spherical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Smooth Rolling Motion in Interior Inspection Applications”
James A. Mynderse, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Giuseppe Santangelo, MS Mechanical Engineering, Adjunct Faculty, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Jeffrey J. Miller, MS in Mechatronic Systems Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Ricardo Diniz Caldas, Guest Student, College of Engineering

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a ubiquitous part of modern society, contributing to foreign military operations, domestic law enforcement, search and rescue, environmental monitoring, journalism, and other tasks. Skypersonic and Lawrence Technological University are developing a new, unique UAV design featuring a spherical cross-linked structure to enclose a traditional quadrotor helicopter (quadcopter). Called a spherocopter, the new design provides two modes of travel: traditional flight and rolling. Use of the rolling mode enables unique functions such as travel along an irregular floor, climbing walls, and entrance into small, enclosed spaces. Expected applications include three-dimensional interior terrain mapping and pipeline inspection. In order to contribute in these applications, the rolling motion must be smooth and predictable while minimizing degradation of aerodynamics due to the spherical enclosure. This work describes the preliminary design, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the spherocopter aerodynamics, ongoing development of a test stand for experimental validation of CFD analysis, and planned development of a control strategy to provide smooth rolling motion of the UAV for applications in interior inspection.

“Experimental Investigation of Vortex-Enhanced Heat Transfer by V-Formation Delta-Winglet Arrays using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)”
Saleh Morjan, Doctor of Engineering Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Dr. Liping Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Dr. Badih Jawad, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

High performance requirement for thermal systems in engineering applications have led researchers to search for enhancement techniques that will increase heat transfer rates in systems. Longitudinal vortex generation is a common technique for enhancing heat transfer performance. It can be achieved by employing small flow manipulators, known as vortex generator (VGs), which are placed on the heat transfer surface. The vortex generators (VGs) can generate longitudinal and horseshoe vortices. These vortices strongly disturb the flow structure and have significant influence on the velocity and temperature fields, which in turn cause heat transfer enhancement. The main aim of this study is to better understand the flow and heat transfer enhancement mechanisms by longitudinal vortex generation. The flow field test system, embedded with vortex generators deployed in a V-shape will be set up and the flow fields will be investigated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The experiments will be carried out in the PIV laboratory housed in the Mechanical Engineering department. In this work, three configurations of VGs, including small single delta winglet pair, large single delta winglet pair and two pair V-formation array, will be fitted vertically on a flat plate and tested in a small wind path system of open circuit with horizontal test section of dimensions 70 mm (width) x 35 mm (height) x 1600 mm (length). An axial DC fan will be used to supply the flow of air through the test section. The air flow is cooling the flat plate with electric heating embedded. In the present PIV experiments, with and without presence of VGs, the transverse section measurements will be performed at sections along the streamwise direction to investigate the flow characteristics in the channel. The effect of three different attack angles, 15, 30 and 45, of the selected VGs will also be investigated in this work.

“Experimental Study of the Impact of Nanofluids on Automotive Engine Cooling”
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, MS in Automotive Engineering Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Dr. Liping Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

In this ongoing research, the effect of various nanofluids on automotive engine cooling will be experimentally studied. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT and SiO2 nanoparticles ranging in the size between 1 and 100nm were mixed with base fluids, such as DI water and ethylene glycol to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to generate uniform particle dispersion in the fluid and keep the mixture stable for a long period of time. The impact of various particle sizes and their volume concentration on properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity will be analyzed using a thermal properties analyzer KD2 pro system and Brookfield DV2T viscometer. Because of their small sizes, nanoparticles are not static in fluid and they tend to move around the fluid in random motion, enhancing the mixing and causing the thermal transport performance to increase. The experimental setup for this project consists of an Aprilia SXV 450 engine (connected to the dynamometer), nanofluid cooling loop, radiator, exhaust analyzer, etc. In the engine dyno lab, nanofluids will be used as engine coolant and the experiments will be carried out under real engine operating conditions. Thermocouples and RTD’s attached to the inlet and outlet of the cooling system monitors the temperature changes taking place with the help of a data acquisition system. Results of heat transfer capability will be compared for cooling system with and without nanoparticle seeding. Compositions of the exhaust gas will also be analyzed under different engine conditions with the help of a 5-gas exhaust analyzer.

“Gait Analysis for Early Fall Prediction”
Mansoor Nasir, PhD, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Akram AlSamarae, BS Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Lindsay Petku, BS Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering

Basic gait analysis using triaxial inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) was investigated in a pilot study with 20 individuals aged 18-90 years of age. Data from two walking trials was used to find the standard deviation of the average gait cycle for all individuals as well as the step frequency. Results indicate noticeably larger variation in inertial and EMG data for the over 60 age group as compared to the under 50 age group. Large variations in step frequency and gait cycle are indicative of irregular walking patterns, which may lead to greater fall susceptibility.

“Increased Primary Stability and Bone-Implant Contact with a Novel Osteotomy Preparation Technique Termed Osseodensification”
Eric Meyer, PhD, Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Daniel Greenshields, MS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Salah Huwais, DDS, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

BACKGROUND: Implant primary stability is crucial for osseointegration. Maintaining bone bulk and density during the implant site preparation is essential for initial bone-implant contact and biomechanical stability. Osseodensification is a novel preparation technique that is highly controllable, fast and efficient, and creates a bone densification layer along the hole. The hypothesis of this study was that this technique would increase implant primary stability in cancellous bone compared with extraction drilling. METHODS: Mechanical tests measured primary stability of three preparation techniques for insertion of 4.1 and 6.0 mm diameter implants: standard drilling (SD); extraction drilling (ED) with a new tapered, Multi-Fluted Burr design; and osseodensification (OD) with the same MFB rotating in a reversed, non-cutting, non-extraction direction. Groups of holes (n=8 per technique) were created in porcine tibial plateau cancellous bone samples attached to a biaxial load cell. A surgical motor (1100 RPM) with irrigation was programmed for a “bouncing” technique with a materials testing system to the hole target depth. Five steps were used to enlarge the holes. Heat generation, implant insertion and removal torques, and implant stability (ISQ) were measured. The morphology of bone was imaged with microscopy, eSEM and the BMD was quantified with μCT. RESULTS: OD insertion and removal torques were significantly increased compared to SD or ED. ISQ and temperature increases demonstrated that OD is clinically similar to drilled holes. Although the MFB diameter was larger than the drill, OD holes were smaller than drilled holes, demonstrating elastic strain recovery. There was a crust of increased BMD around the periphery of OD holes. The OD hole surface also looked smoother, due to granulated particles that were auto-grafted into the entire length especially near the bottom of the holes. DISCUSSION: Osseodensification increases primary stability and creates a densification crust around the preparation site by compacting and auto-grafting bone along the depth of the hole.

“Subgrade Stabilization Using Recycled Materials”
Tarik H. Binoy, MS in Civil Engineering Candidate, GRA, College of Engineering
Nishantha Bandara, PhD, PE, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering

The standard practice of Michigan Department Transportation (MDOT) to treat unsuitable subgrade is to remove and replace (undercutting) with acceptable materials. Recycled materials can be used for improvement of subgrade quality to facilitate pavement construction. An experimental setup has been established at Lawrence Technological University to examine the preliminary results of a laboratory testing program to determine benefits and risks of using recycled materials such as Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), Lime Kiln Dust (LKD), Fly Ash (FA) and Concrete Fines (CF) for subgrade stabilization. These recycled materials were mixed with soil at various percentages and compacted to achieve maximum dry density. Unconfined compressive strength of each mix ratio was tested after compaction to determine the effectiveness of each material. Also other soil properties such as grain size distribution, liquid limit, plastic limit, CBR etc. were tested to observe the change. Three different types of soil were used in this research. Depending on the type of soil 4%-8% CKD is sufficient to significantly improve the strength of the soil. Concrete Fines are not suitable for this purpose even at a higher percentage. Fifteen percent Fly ash can be used to improve soil with high plasticity. For soils with low plasticity, FA alone is not effective and CaO/Ca(OH)2 present in LKD can help improving the effectiveness of FA. LKD as low as 2%-3% mixed with 5%-9% FA can improve subgrade strength significantly. Although LKD can be used to increase the lime content in FA, it cannot work alone to improve the soil strength.

“The Fate and Impact of Cellulosic Materials on the Performance of the Integrated Biomass to Energy System (IBES)”
Nuri A. Mosbah, PhD in Engineering Candidate, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering
S. Diorka, Director of Public Services, Delhi Charter Township, Holt, MI
Tom Doran, PE, Adjunct Faculty, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering
Yawen Li, PhD, Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Nicole Villeneuve, PhD, Professor, Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
Edmund Yuen, PhD, Chair and Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering 

Biofuels production is not a new field. In recent years, new advances were made in the production of renewable energy from cellulose biomasses, which can produce an optimum performance at reducing pollution and increasing energy. Energy recovery from aqueous wastes can be achieved from anaerobic digestion. Biological treatment system depend on the activity of bacteria degradation. Furthermore, the cellulose is a part of the organic food in wastewater for bacteria such as hemicellulose and lignin. The Delhi Charter Township Wastewater Treatment Plant installed a new fine screening system to keep string- like solids out of the IBES digesters and digester heat exchanger of treatment. Once they installed the fine screens, the production of biogases was reduced. The first objective of this research is to investigate the fate and impact of cellulosic materials on the performance of the integrated biomass to energy system (IBES) at the Delhi Charter Township Wastewater Treatment Plant. A second objective of this research is to compare the tests results for biofuel gases before and after installation of fine screens, according to Delhi Charter Township Plant reports. Finally, a third objective is to evaluate glucose in cellulose as a way to estimate the concentration of cellulose, using Spectrophotometric method after digestion, according to the Standard Kejldhl Digestion Method. Samples were taken from different locations, for example, before and after fine screens, primary tanks, secondary tanks, thermophilic digestion, mesophilic and storage digestions tanks, and etc. Data analysis is underway.

“The Tiny House Project”
Maximillian Neuser, BS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Brian Craigo, Adjunct Faculty, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Communication, College of Arts and Sciences

This presentation addresses research I have been conducting into alternative living styles for the adults of today. The project began with a personal need for housing that fit my lifestyle, and the project has evolved to look at the change in society and lifestyle values. The scope of my project has distilled down from a broad range of living options to a more specific direction which looks at the “tiny house” movement. Originally, the task would have been an individual senior engineering project and required a 3-4 person team ranging from a number of different majors. However, while the project would have ideally crossed a number of disciplines, it could have been researched and fabricated solely by engineering majors. The proposal was to build a tiny house which was to be researched and fabricated over two semesters: spring 2015 and fall 2015. Additionally, post-school work time would have been allotted over the summer. However, the project did not progress as part of my schooling and is now being completed during personal free time. To date, the primary research has been finished, and the house is in the further development and fabrication stage. This presentation will review the background information of the tiny house project; present the primary goals and methods of the project; and discuss technical, legal, financial, and design elements of the project. Recommendations will be made.

“WaterTowns and Green Infrastructure: Improving Watersheds through Community Engagement and Planning”
Rachel Pieschek, MS in Civil Engineering Candidate, GRA, College of Engineering
Donald Carpenter, PhD, Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering

This project is a collaboration between the Clinton River Watershed Council (CRWC), Lawrence Technological University, and several municipalities within the Clinton River watershed.  The Clinton River Watershed Council is a non-profit organization whose mission is to protect, enhance, and celebrate the Clinton River, its watershed, and Lake St. Clair.  In 2013, the CRWC announced the launch of their WaterTowns program which is a community-based initiative designed to help towns and cities in the watershed leverage the assets of Clinton River and Lake St. Clair for water-oriented community development.  WaterTowns is meant to facilitate community-based efforts to develop a vision map for the entire watershed highlighting opportunities to maximize the potential of the water resources thereby offering a better quality of life and sense of place.  To extend the impact of the program, in 2014 the CRWC partnered with the Great Lakes Stormwater Management Institute of Lawrence Tech University to provide conceptual green infrastructure plans for downtown and municipal areas of three community partners in close proximity to the Clinton River or its tributaries—Clarkston, Rochester, and Clinton Township.  Lawrence Tech and CRWC representatives participated in meetings to make sure the vision met municipal goals.  The final meeting was a presentation at an open forum municipal council meeting.  The conceptual plans included specific green infrastructure improvements (such as rain gardens, porous pavement, bioswales etc.) along with community placemaking suggestions (such as gathering spaces, trails, etc.).  The final project report also included an analysis of the overall drainage plan for each site and a recommended stormwater master plan based on existing infrastructure and potential improvements.  Finally, Lawrence Tech estimated the volume of water retained on site from the implementation of green infrastructure features, and provided general cost estimate for construction and maintenance based on published literature.

“Winter Travel Speed Data as Performance Measures for Winter Operations”
Nishantha Bandara, PhD, PE, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering

The highway agencies in snowy regions are constantly looking for new approaches for winter maintenance operations. These approaches include a search for new equipment, new materials, or improved methods for winter operations. Improved methods and materials could provide safer driving conditions with improved mobility during winter storms. The use of performance measures to measure the effectiveness of winter maintenance operations is critical to highway agencies to select the best methods. Several performance measures for winter maintenance were developed in the past based on the material usage, equipment usage, and other input-based quantities. However, the traveling public is always keen on outcome-based quantities such as travel time, travel speed, travel safety, etc. Since vehicle speeds are significantly reduced during winter storms, performance measures based on traffic speeds seem to be good indicators for winter maintenance operations. In this study, average and minimum traffic speed during winter events are studied extensively as a case study to use as performance measures for winter maintenance operations. Traffic speed-based performance measures were obtained by analyzing archived speed data from University of Maryland’s Regional Integrated Transportation Information System (RITIS). RITIS stores thousands of traffic speed data from multiple sources and archives them in their databases. Data were analyzed for 2012-2013 winter season for I-96 and US-23 roadways in Livingston County, Michigan. 

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Poster Presentations

“Additive Manufacturing as a Viable Alternative for Production of Stainless Steel Tools”
Kevin Mozurkewich, BS in Biomedical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Eric Meyer, PhD, Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering

DMLM (Direct Metal Laser Melting) has become an extremely efficient alternative to ordinary rapid prototyping and even low level production techniques. DMLM uses a laser to fuse extremely thin layers of metal powder, growing the part from the ground up. This technology gives engineers the ability to use a one piece design, eliminating the need for fasteners, and ultimately increasing the part’s strength while decreasing its production time and cost. DMLM technology allows for complex geometries and internal structures that would have otherwise been impossible to produce through conventional manufacturing methods. The purpose of this research is to further validate the quality of parts produced through DMLM technology. 120 reduced-sized tensile samples will be built in 10 specimen groups of varying build orientation, inert gas atmosphere and micron layer. Parts will be built, stress relieved, solution treated and age hardened to H900 specs in order to most accurately replicate real-world applications. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and percent elongation will be compared from group to group, and compared to published data to further validate the capability and repeatability of the technology. Results to date have showed that material properties changed with variations in micron layer, build orientation and inert gas atmosphere. In conclusion, the data acquired from the research can be used to further validate the DMLM process in addition to aid in the development of new DMLM machine parameters.

“Effect of Industrial Projectile Impact on a Surrogate Head-Form: Implications for Industrial Work Injuries”
Akram Alsamarae, BS Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Brian Weaver, BS Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering
Stephanie Rossman, Doctor of Engineering Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Eric Meyer, PhD, Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering 

The striking of an industrial worker’s head with a projectile object represents a situation with the potential for injuries, such as skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. The present study examines the likelihood of a head-impact injury caused by a four pound steel projectile impacting the lateral side of the head. A calibrated Hybrid-III 50th percentile male head-form with cervical spine (Humanetics) and a motion capture system (Vicon) were used to analyze the kinematics and kinetics of projectile impacts in an industrial scenario. The projectile impact with the head-form was controlled utilizing a pendulum drop-testing fixture. The head-form was rigidly mounted at the base of the cervical spine and instrumented with three single-axis linear accelerometers connected to a data acquisition system. Repeated trials with different impact locations were conducted at a drop height of 2.1 meters that was designed to replicate an industrial accident scenario. Impacts were located on both the right and left side of the temporal-parietal region of the skull at two different height configurations. The average and standard deviation of the impact velocities was 6.1 ± 0.2 m/s. The impact duration was 2.0 ± 0.3 ms for all tests and the peak acceleration was 197 ± 13 g for the unhelmeted and 120 ± 18 g for the helmeted tests. The HIC(3) for unhelmeted and helmeted trials was 168 ± 36 and 47 ± 4, respectively. The HIC(3) values measured during these tests are below the established automotive injury threshold for traumatic brain injury. On the other hand, the short duration of the impact and concentrated impact area indicated that an industrial worker in this scenario would suffer a fracture due to high contact stress on the skull. The helmet damage also confirmed the severity of the impact, but might have reduced the chance of skull fracture.

“Novel Design of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury Prevention Brace”
Daniel Greenshields, MS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Rachel Porter, BS in Biomedical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Justin Killewald, BS in Biomedical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Eric Meyer, PhD, Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering

BACKGROUND: Approximately 200,000 ACL injuries occur in the US annually. Common injury mechanisms include hyperextension, valgus bending, internal rotation of the tibia, and tibiofemoral compressive (TFC) loading. Valgus knee position was recently shown to reduce the TFC force required to produce ACL injury in cadaver knees. This is likely due to the steeper and therefore more unstable posterior tibial slope on the lateral versus the medial compartment. The objective of this project was to redesign the hinge mechanism of a prophylactic knee brace to shift part of the TFC force from the lateral to the medial compartment of the knee. METHODS: The design goals of the knee brace with a modified hinge included: 1) protect against hyperextension and valgus bending, 2) create a varus knee angle, and 3) convert part of the vertical ground reaction force into a lateral brace displacement. Biomechanical human subject testing was conducted on two subjects, with 3 experimental tests to validate the modified brace compared with an unmodified brace. The tests consisted of a step-off landing on both legs, a step-off landing on one leg, and a run and stop jump landing on both legs. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The modified brace produced a small varus angle, whereas a valgus angle was produced with the control brace for the experimental tests. The differences in the frontal plane kinematics and kinetics indicate that the modified brace reduced the compressive load on the lateral compartment of the knee joint.

“Numerical Simulation of the Heat Transfer Performance of Nanofluids in an Automobile Radiator”
Anand Chaudhari, MS in Automotive Engineering Candidate, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Liping Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

In this project, numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effectiveness of nanofluids used as a coolant in automotive engines to improve the radiator performance. Nanofluids (a suspension of a very small amount of nanometer-sized metallic or nonmetallic particles in a base fluid) are superior as a heat transfer agent over conventional fluids through an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. This benefit allows higher component efficiency with compact geometry and lower weight, which in turn results in increased fuel economy. The simulation is being carried out using CoilDesigner software to evaluate the heat capacity with and without nanoparticle seeding. Various nanofluid mixtures will be prepared and fluid properties that influence the thermal transport performance (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, etc.) will be experimentally measured and implemented into the simulation to illustrate their impact on heat transfer performance.

“Operational Improvement of Warehouse Operations”
Nirav Sheth, MS Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering
Parth Patel, MS Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering
Sanjeev Manjunathan, MS in Industrial Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Anupam Byri, MS in Industrial Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Rajashekar Geddadi, MS Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering
Gomanth Duvvuru, MS in Industrial Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering
Ahad Ali, PhD, Associate Professor and Director, Master of Engineering in Manufacturing Systems and MS in Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering
Don Reimer, MA Political Science, College Professor, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Associate Director of the Entrepreneurship Program

The study provides modeling, simulation and improvement of wheel repacking area. A time study was conducted of the repacking line and the data were collected to gain better understanding of the operations and the processes involved. Based on the data and analysis, a flow diagram was developed with operational time distribution as part of the work standard. The major bottleneck is in the line management of the repacking area. The TAKT times for existing production line and future production line are compared. As a result, line production improvement can be achieved to 30% without a major investment. This can be achieved by better repacking line management. Some additional workers would be required for cleaning and line management. The fork lift truck drivers were not shown as a significant bottleneck. Minor issues could be resolved with better managing and scheduling for the drivers. The automation option requires further detailed analysis. The wheel inspection system and technology could be improved without full line automation. There are some cheaper solutions for inspection systems. The banding technology should be improved so that it can cope with line synchronization of other operations. Line integration / coordination are a challenge. Visible work instruction for line workers as well as inspectors could improve the line efficiency as well.

“Test Methods and Equipment Used to Evaluate the Flammability, Smoke, and Toxicity Properties of Materials Used within Army Ground Vehicles”
Keith Kowalkowski, PhD, PE, SE, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering
Roger Harrison, Research Engineer, Master of Engineering Management, College of Engineering
Nabil Grace, PhD, PE, Dean, College of Engineering
Tyler Muszynski, BS in Mechanical Engineering Candidate, College of Engineering

The Department of Civil Engineering at Lawrence Technological University is performing experimental investigations to assist in the development of a test procedure used to evaluate the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties of materials used within army ground vehicles. In this test procedure, the research team is establishing the required test methods and acceptable results for both material evaluations and large-scale component evaluations. Material test methods use existing standards such as: ASTM E 1354, ASTM E 662, ASTM E 162, and ASTM D 2863.  Equipment has been obtained for evaluating materials for each of the test methods which measure heat release rate, time to ignition, mass loss rate, smoke density, limiting oxygen index, and flame spread index. Additional test methods are being developed in this research including a large-scale General Fire Test and a Gas Molecule Evaluation. The General Fire Test is used to determine similar properties as the ASTM test methods but for components of any shape and size. The Gas Molecule Evaluation is used to identify and quantify the toxic gases generated by materials and components under fire. The test method idealizes Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and a gas analyzer and is idealized during an ASTM E 662 test and as part of the General Fire Test. Research and development of the army test procedure is ongoing. The current study objective is to show the community the equipment used to measure the fire properties and explain the test methods currently recommended as part of the army test procedure.

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COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT

Oral Presentations

“AACSB Accreditation Standard Two: Focus on Measuring Quality and Impact of Intellectual Contributions”
Matthew Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
Adeyinka Adenrele, MS in Information Systems Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Bahman Mirshab, PhD, Dean, College of Management
Shahram Taj, PhD, Professor and Chair, Management and Marketing, College of Management

This presentation addresses the requirements of AACSB accreditation Standard 2: “The school produces high-quality intellectual contributions that are consistent with its mission, expected outcomes, and strategies and that impact the theory, practice, and teaching of business and management.” We focus on the issues and challenges with evaluating the quality and impact of full time facultys' intellectual works via journal rankings, number of citations, SCImago journal rank (SJR), impact per publication index (PPI), and source normalized impact per paper (SNIP). Results are discussed in the context of the general difficulty and lack of consensus in evaluating the quality and impact of faculty scholarly contributions.

“Building Collaboration in Virtual Teams through Emotional Intelligence: Mediation by SOAR”
Matthew Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
John Cox, DBA, College of Management
Jacqueline Stavros, DM, Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management

In today’s global business environment virtual teams have increased rapidly worldwide due to advances in communication technology that facilitate communication and sharing of information among team members regardless of geographic location. Collaboration is an essential factor in leveraging team effectiveness, and global organizations are looking for ways to develop a climate of collaboration among their virtual teams.  Emotional intelligence (EI) provides active support of the collaborative process, and as EI is developed throughout the collaborative team, support of a common goal grows and team effectiveness increases. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the mechanism of action by which EI has a positive impact on team-based collaboration. One way to understand mechanisms that underlie relationships is to examine the presence of mediators in relationships among variables. One aspect of collaboration that is important for increasing team effectiveness is supporting collaborative strategies that draw upon the capacity of team leaders to recognize the strengths of team members. A generative and strengths-based approach to strategic thinking, planning, and leading that allows a team to construct its future through collaboration, shared understanding, and a commitment to action is SOAR (Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, Results). We focus on understanding the effect of EI on team collaboration as mediated by SOAR. Results of our research have important implications for virtual teams and their pervasive use in business.

“Consumers’ Reactions to Activist Groups’ Eco-Sabotage of Companies”
Isar Kiani, PhD, Assistant Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
Jad Mortada, MBA candidate, GRA, College of Management

Abstract not available.

“Investigating the Links Among Patient Experience, Revenue Cycle Management, and Financial Performance of U.S. Hospitals: Methodological Considerations”
Lihua Dishman, MBA, Doctor of Business Administration Candidate, College of Management

Patient experience (PX) has emerged as an area of research and impacts hospital financial performance (FP).  Revenue cycle management (RCM) has gained prominence as one of hospital FP predictors.  Yet, understanding is limited regarding interplays among PX, RCM, and FP. This presentation will discuss methodological considerations to examine four years of existing patient data and hospital financial data for the effects that patient experience of hospital care may have on hospital financial performance, the moderating effects that revenue cycle management may have on hospital financial performance, and the directions of these effects. Data obtained from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey (HCAHPS) and the Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey (CGCAHPS) will be discussed. Descriptive and inferential statistics that will be utilized for data analysis will be discussed.

“IT Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense”
Anne Kohnke, PhD, Assistant Professor, Information Technology, College of Management

The risk of poorly implemented IT security controls can be devastating. Nevertheless, even the most technically savvy organizations cannot stop hackers. Technical solutions need to work in harmony with formal security controls, informal organizational culture, and the overriding mission and goals of the organization.  With the exponential growth of security breaches and the increasing dependency on external business partners to achieve organizational success, the effective use of enterprise-wide frameworks and implementation of integrated security controls are critical in order to mitigate data theft.  Surprisingly, many organizations do not have formal processes or policies to protect their assets from internal or external threats.  This paper gives an overview of why an organization should consider using, or tightening up their organizational security controls, an overview of the most widely used frameworks, and a comparative discussion of the various IT security frameworks to assist managers in assessing their own IT security efforts.

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Poster Presentations

“An Intelligent System for Student Advising”
Chih-Hao Ku, PhD, Assistant Professor, Information Technology, College of Management
Jinkai Xu, MS in Information Technology Candidate, College of Management
Diane Cairns, Ed.S., Online Evaluation and Assessment Specialist, Program Producer, eLearning Services
Zina Orow, B. Arch, Student Service Coordinator, College of Management

This study investigates how data mining and information visualization techniques can be used to facilitate the student advising process at the College of Management. Academic advising is designed to help students choose courses, determine semester plans for course registration, review overall academic performance, and provide support of students’ career development plans. Academic advising professionals examine students’ academic transcript for transferred credits, credits completed, and credit requirements toward degree completion. The acquisition of additional information is required to advise students each semester on course registration and their degree status. Student information is obtained from the Banner system, college program worksheet, and confirmation of course prerequisites, current semester schedule for course availability, and the number of seats available. Additionally, personal information such as students’ working status and professional challenges for the semester beyond academic records are required to assist students with life and work balance. Effective student advising can be a challenge due to the multiple sources of data requirements complied in various formats and the need to digest and synthesize information efficiently. The comprehensive nature of the current advising process may prevent students from graduating on time, which may in turn lead to lower graduation and student retention rates. This study will provide recommendations for a prototype supporting student advising. The framework includes an information extraction system to collect relevant information from identified sources supporting student advising. The proposed system will support a report generation system generating advising reports, recommended course schedules for the student and college semester planning. A recommendation for a visualization report will also be proposed to facilitate proactive planning. It is anticipated this intelligent system will reduce the amount of time student advisers required to generate quality advising reports and proactive scheduling of courses, thus increasing students’ satisfaction with availability of courses, and retention and graduation rate.

“College of Management’s Path to AACSB Accreditation: Focus on Standard Two—Intellectual Contributions, Impact, and Alignment with Mission”
Adeyinka Adenrele, MS in Information Technology Candidate, GRA, College of Management
Matthew Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
Bahman Mirshab, PhD, Dean, College of Management
Shahram Taj, PhD, Professor and Chair, Management and Marketing, College of Management 

The College of Management at Lawrence Tech is implementing the process towards obtaining accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). This poster addresses the steps involved in meeting the requirements of accreditation Standard 2: “The school produces high-quality intellectual contributions that are consistent with its mission, expected outcomes, and strategies and that impact the theory, practice, and teaching of business and management.” To this end, each full time faculty in the College provided a five-year aggregate summary of their intellectual work categorized as basic science and discovery, applied research, and teaching and learning scholarship. Next, each faculty aligned their intellectual work with the College mission in terms of six elements: theory and practice, leadership, ethics and social, interdisciplinary, global and technology. Next, faculty provided evidence demonstrating the quality of their portfolio of intellectual works in terms of the quality of peer-reviewed journals according to journal rankings in Cabell’s directory of business and management journals. Finally, faculty addressed the impact of their intellectual works via journal rankings, number of citations, impact per publication index, and source normalized impact per paper. Results are discussed in the context of the general difficulty and lack of consensus in evaluating the quality and impact of faculty scholarly contributions.

“Cybersecurity: It Only Takes Seconds for a Hacker to Take EVERYTHING”
Anne Kohnke, PhD, Assistant Professor, Information Technology, College of Management
Veera Raghava Prasad Govinda Raju, MS in Information Technology Candidate, GRA, College of Management

The demand for cybersecurity professionals is estimated to grow to 2.5 million new workers by 2015.  According to the Department of Homeland Security, the government will have to compete with the private sector for skilled workers.  Cybersecurity is a relatively new discipline, and the absence of a common language to discuss and understand the work and skill requirements of cybersecurity professionals hinders the nation's ability to baseline capabilities, identify skill gaps, develop talent in the current workforce, and prepare the pipeline of future talent.  Several challenges are identified: Lack of standardized language to describe and organize cybersecurity work; Lack of college programs that clearly align to cybersecurity jobs; Employer training and retraining of new hires in the specific skills required; Unclear job prospects and career opportunities for students; and The need for policy makers to set standards that promote workforce professionalization. In an effort to increase cybersecurity awareness in general, promote cybersecurity instruction in secondary and higher education, and improve development of a cybersecurity workforce, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has created the National Initiative on Cybersecurity Education (NICE) framework.  The NICE framework provides a working taxonomy intended to fit into an organization's existing occupational structure in both the private and public sectors. Additionally, the IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) provides a comprehensive overview of 14 competency areas for ten security professional roles within an organization. Our poster aims to provide an overview of cybersecurity, discuss the needed skills and competency areas of cybersecurity as defined in the IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK), highlight the comprehensive NICE Framework that includes the specialty areas of knowledge and professional roles involved, and review some of the popular tools used in cybersecurity countermeasures.

“Globalization and Issues Faced by Small Firms: Looking for a Solution”
Peihua Wang, MBA candidate, GRA, College of Management

Today's small business not only needs to compete with their peers in their local areas, but also needs to compete with other companies around the world. While large companies have many resources available to address globalization and extend business to other countries, small firms may not be able to look beyond their borders to extend their business due to a lack of resources (both financial and human). For example, previous research shows that many large companies in the US have at least one director who comes from a foreign country, and the main reason for having them on the board is to extend the business to those countries. Large companies also have the resources for marketing, and research and development, which, in turn, help them to compete in this global economy. To help small firms extend their businesses beyond their boarders, we propose to use a research team comprised of students from different majors and different nationalities. The team will be comprised of Lawrence Tech students from different majors, and case studies will be reviewed to determine intervention elements. Our ultimate goal is to work with a small company and investigate if we can develop an intervention that may help other small companies compete effectively in today's global economy to extend its business globally. The study should benefit both students and the company. Students will learn how to apply their knowledge in practice, and the small company will benefit from the diversity and expertise of the students.

“Google Analytics as a Tool to Integrate the College of Management Website Business Objectives with Measurable Goals”
Vladimir Rozovskiy, MSIT, Project Management Certificate Candidate, GRA, College of Management

Since the development of web-analytics and log file analysis in 1993, organizations favoring an evidence-based approach have been able to achieve strategic objectives and strengthen their core competencies. A plethora of various web-analysis tools allows businesses to collect and process high volumes of real-time data, including click-streams, demographics, and interests, allowing for decision-making based on actual data as opposed to opinions. In order to maintain a competitive advantage, the College of Management has decided to implement one of the web-analytics tools called Google Analytics to analyze its website traffic in an attempt to identify areas for improvement. This project will identify 4-7 strategic objectives and translate them into a set of measurable goals linked with variable data available through Google Analytics. Current performance will be presented and benchmarked allowing the identification of key performance indicators and set numerical targets in order to measure future success or failure. A set of actions will be recommended based on targets set in the analysis.

“The Role of Social Media in Improving Social Commerce: Strategic Implications for Marketing Managers”
Manisha Mathur, PhD, Assistant Professor, Management and Marketing, College of Management
Sowmya Yegyanarayanan, MS in Information Systems Candidate, GRA, College of Management

Abstract not available.

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Plenary Session

“Integrating Authentic Research into Undergraduate Courses: Course-Based Research Experience”
Franco Delogu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology
Jeff Morrissette, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences
Patrick Nelson, PhD, Associate Professor, Math & Computer Science
Lior Shamir, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science
Yin Wang, PhD, Assistant Professor, Math & Computer Science
Melinda Weinstein, PhD, Associate Professor, Humanities
Julie Zwiesler-Vollick, PhD, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences
Hsiao-Ping Moore, PhD, Professor, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences

Research experience has been identified as one of the most powerful strategies for recruiting and retaining undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Numerous studies and national strategic committees have documented the dramatic impact of research experience on recruitment, retention, and graduation. In most cases, however, undergraduate students are exposed to research only in their junior/senior year rather than freshman/sophomore year when recruitment/retention is critical.  Here we describe the concept of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CRE or CURE), which aims at incorporating research experience into regular courses instead of being confined to the more commonly adopted format of independent studies. Our ultimate goal is to expose students to research across curriculum starting as early as their freshman year. Instead of repeating classical “cookbook” experiments, students design and perform their own novel experiments for which the outcomes are unknown and hence genuine scientific discoveries are possible.  Initial assessment results show a significant increase in student engagement and satisfaction.  In many cases, students continue their course assignments even after the end of the semester. We will also discuss the practical challenges of implementing CRE/CURE, including multiple novel experiments in a regular course format, freshman/sophomore as student researcher, and the constraints of course schedule. 

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