Lawrence Technological University prohibits the use of alcohol when its use is inconsistent with state, local, or University regulations. It is the goal of the University to establish and sustain an environment on campus that is conducive to the intellectual, emotional, and social growth of all the members of its community. Lawrence Technological University has established the following policy governing the possession, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages on the University’s campus. It is the University’s goal through these policies and programs to encourage members of its community to make responsible decisions and to promote safe, legal, and healthy patterns of social interaction.
The University shall implement and enforce the laws of the state of Michigan as stated in the Michigan Liquor Control Code of 1998 as amended. It is the responsibility of each student, staff, and faculty member to familiarize himself or herself with the appropriate sections of the code and the provisions of this policy and to conduct one’s self in a responsible manner.
The Michigan Liquor Control Code includes the following statements:
1. A person who has not reached the age of 21 years shall not possess any alcoholic beverage for the purpose of personal consumption.
2. A person shall not sell or give any alcoholic beverage to any person who has not reached the age of 21 years.
While persons of legal age, under the laws of Michigan, may consume alcoholic beverages, students are subject to disciplinary action for the possession or consumption of alcoholic beverages in public areas or for drunken or irresponsible behavior resulting from. Lawrence Tech defines public areas as areas that are readily accessible to students, faculty, staff, and guests on the campus. Examples of spaces considered public are lobbies, lounges, recreational areas, classrooms, building corridors, offices, and campus grounds.
The University permits alcoholic beverages on campus as part of the operation of licensed University facilities and for some social events. The University deplores the misuse and abuse of alcohol. Alcohol consumption will not be considered an excuse for misconduct. Violation of University policies may result in disciplinary action. In addition, such matters may be reported by the University to appropriate law enforcement authorities. Violators will be subject to penalties, which may include separation from the University or mandatory referral for treatment.
At events at which alcohol is served and in University facilities in which it is served, operators and event sponsors are responsible for complying with the laws of the state of Michigan, ordinances of the city of Southfield, and all policies of Lawrence Technological University. The provost, through the dean of students or designee, is responsible for administering the University alcohol policy. The provost or dean of students or designee will approve in advance all events in licensed facilities or events held on or in unlicensed University premises at which alcohol is served and, if deemed necessary, impose additional conditions and restrictions on a sponsoring organization and on events. The sponsoring organization should be prepared to provide in writing information pertaining to the purpose of the activity, number of participants, location, and whether the activity is public or private.
A. Procedures for Specific Facilities
Policies and procedures for specific University facilities may be in place. Such facilities include but are not limited to residence halls, Campus Dining facilities, Professional Development Center facilities, and the University Technology and Learning Center. Such policies must be consistent with University policy.
B. Events Held on Campus
The use of alcohol at events held on the Lawrence Technological University campus is governed by the following regulations:
1. The sponsoring organization, department, or approved user of facilities will oversee adherence to the alcohol policy, assume responsibility for the event, and control and supervise the distribution of alcoholic beverages in accordance with all applicable laws, rules, and policies.
2. Campus Safety officers must regularly patrol the location of an event where alcohol is served unless this duty is determined by the director of Campus Safety to be unnecessary.
3. No one under the age of 21 is permitted to possess, serve, or consume any alcoholic beverages. At any event where alcoholic beverages are served and/or sold, approval for the event will be based upon the age of the event participants as well as the nature of the event. For example, an event at which the majority of participants are under the age of 21 will not have alcoholic beverages available for consumption. However, a designated, physically defined, monitored area may be utilized for those of legal age if approved in advance.
4. All sale/use of alcoholic beverages on University property will be monitored by and subject to inspection by University officials.
5. No person will possess or be served alcoholic beverages without proof of legal age. Persons responsible for the sale of alcohol at permitted events must be of legal age to sell.
6. Events where alcoholic beverages are used, served, and/or sold shall not have alcohol or the consumption of alcohol as the theme. No element of an event where alcohol will be used, served, and/or sold shall encourage, in any manner, the consumption of alcohol.
7. Use of alcoholic beverages must not be detrimental to the environment or to health and safety.
8. No servers of alcohol may be permitted to consume alcoholic beverages while serving nor shall they be permitted to serve while intoxicated. Intoxicated people will not be served nor permitted to possess alcoholic beverages.
9. At all events where alcohol is used, served, and/or sold, non-alcoholic beverages and unsalted foods must be made available in quantity sufficient for the number of guests. All food should be visible and available.
10. Alcoholic beverages are not permitted to be sold or used prior to noon. For an event lasting three hours or more, sale or service must stop 45 minutes prior to the end of the event.
11. Under no circumstances may any alcoholic beverage be permitted to leave the approved area of the event. No alcoholic beverages may be brought into the event by an individual when alcoholic beverages are being served and/or sold by event organizers.
12. Outdoor Events
In addition to the above, the following will hold for outdoor events:
a. The area in which the outdoor event is held must be defined by physical barriers (e.g., snow fence).
b. Bottles, cans, kegs, etc., may not be brought into the event area and/or alcohol serving area.
c. The sale of alcoholic beverages or tickets for alcoholic beverages must end no less than 60 minutes before the end of the outdoor event. If tickets are sold, the redemption of tickets and distribution of such beverages must end no less than 45 minutes before the scheduled end of the outdoor event.
13. Student organizations considering sponsoring events at which alcohol is sold must, before taking action, consult with the appropriate administrative offices (Dean of Students, University Housing, Student Engagement, Campus Facilities) and abide by the relevant administrative decisions and University regulations. Alcohol/punch-type parties (e.g., hairy buffaloes, drinks made with Everclear) beer bongs, and party bongs are prohibited. All required University permits and event forms must be submitted to appropriate University officials no later than 10 days before the event.
According to the City of Southfield, a permit must be obtained from the fire code official prior to organizing a bonfire. Application for such a permit can only be presented by - and permits issued to - the owner of the land upon which the fire is to be kindled. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 50 feet of a structure or combustible material, unless the fire is contained in a barbeque pit. Conditions which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. The permit cost is $200 per event. Consultation with the dean of students is required.
Lawrence Technological University has adopted this policy to assist both students and staff in the resolution of student concerns and complaints constructively, quickly and fairly. Where minor concerns arise, students are encouraged to make an appointment with the instructor, administrator or staff member who is directly involved with the concern. Usually the concern can be resolved satisfactorily through honest and open communication with the instructor, administrator or staff member.
Meeting with the instructor, administrator or staff member should be the first step in resolving the concern. However, where informal discussions have not yielded a satisfactory resolution, or where the matter is more serious, the following policy provides for a more formal process to be pursued.
Complaints made under this policy will be monitored and reviewed to enable LTU to continually improve processes and services in support of student learning. Student rights and responsibilities in relation to this policy are set out in the appendix to this policy.
POLICY Definitions In this policy:
Complaint is an allegation by a student that there has been, in an individual case, an arbitrary or discriminatory application of, or failure to act pursuant to, the policies of Lawrence Technological University in relation to students. The complaint should be a written statement submitted by a student about a matter that requires formal consideration and resolution by the university in the terms set out in this policy.
Fair play means the right to have a decision made by an unbiased decision maker who observes fair and impartial procedures.
Application and scope
1) Subject to subsection (2), this policy applies to student complaints about any aspect of the teaching and learning process and the broad provision made by the university to support that process.
2) This policy may not be used:
- where the complaint can be dealt with under: the Student Code of Conduct, Guidelines for Living in University Housing, the Student Government Constitution, other club and student organization constitutions, the Academic Honor Code, the Grade Appeal Process or the, Sexual Assault and Harassment Policy or other general policies that provide a specific process for resolution of complaints.
- to challenge the academic judgement of faculty.
3) No action will be taken on malicious or anonymous complaints.
4) A complainant must be able to demonstrate that the complaint is brought without malice and is based on evidence that the complainant honestly and reasonably believes to be substantially true. Those responsible for resolving complaints under this policy must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the complainant is protected against any subsequent recrimination or victimization.
5) Students and staff involved in the consideration and resolution of concerns and complaints have various rights and responsibilities, which are outlined in the appendix to the policy.
Informal resolution of concerns
1) Before making formal written complaints, students are encouraged to seek resolution to any concerns by raising and discussing them informally with the relevant faculty, administrator or staff member who is most directly associated with the matter. Usually the concern can be resolved satisfactorily through honest and open communication with the faculty or staff member.
2) A staff member with whom a concern is raised by a student is expected to deal with the matter in an open and professional manner and to take reasonable and prompt action to try to resolve it informally.
3) If the concern has not been addressed satisfactorily by meeting with the faculty, administrator or staff member, the student should bring the concern to the supervisor (staff) or chair of the academic department (faculty). The supervisor or chair will often be able to resolve the concern satisfactorily.
4) A student who is uncertain about how to seek informal resolution of a concern is encouraged to seek advice from the Dean of Students or his/her designee, located in C405, A. Alfred Taubman Students Services Center.
Formal complaint procedure
1) If after visiting with the staff or faculty member and the supervisor or chair, it has not been possible to resolve the concern informally, a student may make a formal complaint.
2) A student who wishes to make a formal complaint must submit it in writing to the Dean of Students or the Director who is responsible for the action or matter that has given rise to the complaint.
3) The written complaint must be submitted within one month after the occurrence of the action or matter that has given rise to the complaint, unless the DOS or Director agrees to receive it beyond this time frame.
4) If the complainant prefers not to address the complaint to the person recommended in subsection (2) it may be addressed to the Vice President for the area most directly related to the complaint who will address the complaint and make a decision in accordance with these procedures.
5) If a complaint involves a Vice President, it should be directed to the President.
6) The DOS or Director who receives a student complaint must acknowledge it in writing within three working days. He or she must also lodge the complaint with the Dean of Students Office who will maintain a file of all documentation in relation to the consideration of the complaint.
7) The DOS or Director must ensure that any staff member named in the complaint receives a copy as soon as practical.
8) The DOS or Director must consider the complaint in accordance with the principles of fair play, and must ensure that all parties to the complaint are accorded the full benefit of those principles.
9) The process may include meetings with relevant staff and/or the complainant. Where meetings are held, the parties may, if they wish, be accompanied by a peer support person.
Resolution of complaints
1) The DOS or Director must make a decision in relation to the complaint and must communicate his or her decision to the parties, in writing, within 28 days of receiving the complaint.
2) If the complaint involves a university policy or procedure and if, in the opinion of the DOS or Director, the complaint has substance, the DOS or Director must arrange for the relevant policy or procedure to be reviewed, with a view to preventing a recurrence and ensuring continued improvement.
3) If the resolution of the complaint involves potential disciplinary action for an employee, the DOS or Director must follow the appropriate procedures outlined in the Faculty Handbook or LTU Employee Handbook. If the DOS or Director does not have authority over the employee, then they may forward a recommendation for disciplinary action to the appropriate supervisor.
1) Any party to a student complaint who is dissatisfied with a decision by the DOS or Director under this policy may appeal to the Vice President for the area most directly related to the complaint.
2) The appeal must be submitted in writing within two weeks of the letter communicating the decision.
3) The Vice President will consider the relevant documentation and may, at his or her discretion, consult the DOS or Director who made the decision. The Vice President may also interview any parties to the complaint.
4) If he or she determines that the complaint process has been conducted in accordance with this policy and the outcome is appropriate, the Vice President may dismiss the appeal. Otherwise, he or she will decide the appeal in consultation with the DOS or Director and any other parties.
Subject to subsections (6) and (7), the decision of the Vice President under this section is final.
5) The Vice President will communicate his or her appeal decision in writing to the parties.
6) The Vice President will also inform any staff members who are dissatisfied with a student complaint process of the steps available to them under the Lawrence Technological University Human Resource Policy Manual Grievance Procedures.
7) If the original complaint was addressed to the Vice President under section 4(4), any appeal must be made to the President. That appeal will be considered and decided, in accordance with appeal processes consistent with those set out in this policy, by the President or a nominee of the President.
Confidentiality All student related information will be considered confidential and protected under FERPA (Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act). Records relating to employees and other records that do not include student information are not confidential. Report to the Student Complaint Log All employees who receive a complaint must submit a report to the Student Complaint Log, including an overview of the student complaint and decisions made regarding the complaint.
Complaint logs are located in the Dean of Students Office, C405.
APPENDIX Rights and Responsibilities of Parties to a Student Complaint Parties to a student complaint have the right to
- be treated with courtesy at all times
- a fair and timely investigation process
- express their points of view without fear of recrimination
- receive full information at all stages of the complaint process
- be advised in writing of all decisions made in relation to the complaint
- appeal the outcome as outlined in this policy Parties to a student complaint have a responsibility to
- treat all parties with courtesy at all times
- respect the points of view of others
- respect the rights of all parties to the complaint with respect to confidentiality
- in the case of the complainant, ensure that the complaint is made in good faith and complies with the requirements of the Student Complaint Policy
- provide full and accurate information to the person investigating the complaint
- not take any action that may prejudice the situation or be regarded as an act of recrimination against any other party.
Approved by Lawrence Technological University’s Deans Council on May 12, 2020
Involvement in the illegal possession, use, sale, or sharing of drugs, or misconduct resulting therefrom is an offense subject to disciplinary sanctions up to and including dismissal or expulsion from the University. The University may prohibit the use or possession of any drugs on campus. The University expects all students to obey the law established and enforced by municipal, state, and federal agencies.
Participation in the U.S. Drug Prevention Program
Lawrence Technological University is committed to promoting and maintaining a work and academic environment that is free from illegal use of alcohol and drugs, in accordance with all federal, state, and local laws as well as the Drug Free Schools and Campus Safety Act. Lawrence Technological University is in compliance with all provisions of the U.S. Department of Education Drug Prevention Program, which is a condition of the University’s eligibility to receive federal funds or any other form of federal financial assistance.
Other applicable policies are provided in section 701 of the Employee Handbook and section 3.14 in the Faculty Handbook. The University specifically prohibits the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol by students and employees on its property or as a part of its activities (except at University functions at which alcohol use is approved). Use of alcoholic beverages at any University function requires the approval of the provost or designee.
Employees, students, and campus visitors age 21 years or older, who consume alcohol at University functions or while on University business where such use is approved, are expected to use alcohol responsibly and not engage in illegal, unprofessional, or disruptive behavior. Violators will be subject to penalties, which may include expulsion or separation from the University. Any employee or student found to be in violation of University policy regarding drugs or alcohol will be subject to disciplinary action up to and including dismissal or expulsion in accordance with applicable disciplinary procedures.
Possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs, possession or consumption of alcoholic beverages by individuals under 21 years of age, and distribution of alcohol without a license or permit issued by a competent legal authority are violations of local, state, and federal laws. It is the policy of the University to cooperate fully in any prosecution based on violation of these laws.
A variety of serious health risks are associated with the use of illicit drugs and the abuse of alcohol. These include permanent damage to the liver, brain, and other vital organs, heart damage or malfunction, including sudden death, and accidents caused by impaired judgment or abilities. Individuals who may have a drug dependency or alcohol abuse problem are advised to contact the Oakland County Drug and Substance Abuse Center at 248.858.5200.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) affords students certain rights with respect to their education records. These rights are:
1. The right to inspect and review the student’s education records within 45 days of the day the University receives a request for access. Students should submit to the Office of the Registrar written requests that identify the record(s) they wish to inspect. The University registrar will make arrangements for access and notify the student of the time and place where the records may be inspected. If the records are not maintained by the Office of the Registrar, where the request was submitted, the University registrar shall advise the student of the correct official to whom the request should be addressed.
2. The right to request the amendment of any of the student’s education records that the student believes are inaccurate or misleading. Students may ask the University to amend a record that they believe is inaccurate or misleading. They should write the University official responsible for the record, clearly identify the part of the record they want changed, and specify why it is inaccurate or misleading. If the University decides not to amend the record as requested by the student, the University will notify the student of the decision and advise the student of his or her right to a hearing regarding the request for amendment. Additional information regarding the hearing procedures will be provided to the student when notified of the right to a hearing.
3. The right to consent to disclosures of personally identifiable information contained in the student’s education records, except to the extent that FERPA authorizes disclosure without consent to school officials with legitimate educational interests. A school official is defined as a person employed by the University in an administrative, supervisory, academic, or support staff position (including the law enforcement unit and health staff); a person or company with whom the University has contracted (such as an attorney, auditor, or collection agent); a person serving on the Board of Trustees; or a person assisting another school official in performing his or her tasks. A school official has a legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an education record in order to fulfill his or her professional responsibility.
4. The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures by the University to comply with the requirements of FERPA. The name and address of the office that administers FERPA is:
Family Policy Compliance Office
U.S. Department of Education
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20202-4605
At Lawrence Technological University the following information is considered Directory Information about a student: dates of attendance, major field of study, class level, degrees and awards received, anticipated degree date, and confirmation that the student is enrolled (enrollment status).
In accordance with the provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), this Directory Information can be released to the general public and may be listed in the campus directory, if one is published. Students may withhold this information from being released by completing the Student Request For Non-Disclosure Form. By completing this form, students are requesting that information NOT be released to non-university personnel nor listed in the campus directory, if one is published. This remains in effect until removed by the student. Please note that in compliance with federal regulations, there are situations in which particular information may be released, upon presentation of official documents, to designated state, local, or government agencies.
Students should consider carefully the impact of their decision to request confidential status. This means that after submission of the form, requests for this information from non-university persons or organizations will be refused. Friends or relatives trying to reach a student will not be able to do so through the University; the student’s name will not appear in the printed Commencement program; information that the student is enrolled at Lawrence Tech will be suppressed, so if a loan company, prospective employer, family member, etc., inquires about the student, they will be informed that there is no record of the student’s attendance here.
Lawrence Technological University will honor the student’s request to withhold this information but cannot assume responsibility for contacting the student for subsequent permission to release the Directory Information. Regardless of the effect upon the student, Lawrence Technological University assumes no liability as a result of honoring the student’s instructions that this information be withheld.
Once a student has designated a confidential classification, it will remain in effect until removed by the student. If a student wishes the classification removed, the student should submit a signed authorization requesting that it be removed. This authorization form is available in the Office of the Registrar.
Final Examination Scheduling (Resolution SG2004-01)
In February 2004, the Lawrence Tech Student Government passed a resolution regarding the scheduling of final exams, which was subsequently approved by the Lawrence Tech administration, stating that:
A student shall not be required to take more than two examinations within one day during the published final examination period. More than two examinations within one day are referred to as clustered examinations.
Students who have three or more clustered examinations may request of one professor that the examination be rescheduled. If the student is unable to arrange for one of the examinations to be rescheduled, the student is to request assistance from the Office of the Dean of his/her college. The student’s dean (or designee) in consultation with the dean (or designee) of the courses involved will designate the examination to be rescheduled.
The use or possession of firecrackers, firearms, or any type of ammunition or explosives is prohibited. Failure to comply with this regulation will result in penalties up to and including expulsion.
Student participation in activities that elicit public alarm, disturb the public peace, threaten or endanger personal well-being, disrupt or interfere with the orderly process of the University, or harm public or private property is prohibited. Students who encourage or become involved in such activities are subject to disciplinary sanctions up to and including expulsion.
Littering the campus grounds, buildings, and facilities is prohibited, and Campus Safety is authorized to issue a University violation notice to violators.
Lawrence Technological University adheres and conforms to all federal, state, and local civil rights regulations, statutes, and ordinances. No person, student, faculty, or staff member will knowingly be discriminated against relative to the above statutes. Lawrence Technological University is an equal opportunity employer.
Direct inquiries regarding non-discriminatory policies to:
Division of Student Affairs
21000 West Ten Mile Road
Southfield, MI 48075-1058
The college years are ones in which a student’s relationship with his or her parents shifts from childhood dependency to a deep, enduring, mutually respectful friendship and emotional support. The University’s policy is to honor both students’ emerging adulthood and the importance of family connections for student well-being. Ultimately, Lawrence Tech places the responsibility for parental communication on the student. However, the following are guidelines that Lawrence Technological University has instituted in situations deemed appropriate for parental contact.
The director of first-year experience communicates events and general information regarding first-year students under the age of 21 to their parents at the beginning of each semester, in the middle of the semester, and at the end of the academic calendar year.
Alcohol and/or Drug Incidents
The parents of enrolled students under the age of 21 who are found responsible for offenses involving alcohol and/or drugs may be notified. The process of adjudicating these violations will be handled in accordance with the Student Code of Conduct. The dean of students or designee will determine, in each instance, whether parental notification will be made. In non-life-threatening circumstances, Lawrence Tech will wait until disciplinary proceedings are completed before implementing parental notification.
Health and Safety Emergencies
Parental notification may occur in cases involving health, safety, or life-threatening emergencies, regardless of the age or financial dependency of the student. An incident in which a student is transported to the hospital may be considered life threatening. Actions that endanger the student, the University, or the local community, or the academic process, or cause harm to self or others may result in parental notification. The dean of students or designee will determine, in each instance, whether parental notification will be made.
Lawrence Technological University offers open and free parking on paved, lighted lots. However, all faculty, staff, and students are required to register their vehicles and obtain a parking permit. The presence of the required parking permit allows campus safety officers to easily identify whether or not a vehicle belongs to someone in the University community and hence belongs on the campus. The enforcement of parking regulations is not an attempt to restrict community life; rather it is aimed toward public safety and the elimination of hazardous situations.
Enrollment as a member of the University community presumes an implied consent of compliance with Lawrence Tech Parking and Traffic Regulations. It is the responsibility of all individuals who operate or maintain vehicles on the Lawrence Tech campus to be aware of these regulations and to abide by them. In the case of guests on campus it is their host’s responsibility to ensure that their guest drives and parks responsibly on University property; hosts should be aware that they may be subject to sanctions for their guests’ infractions. The ability to drive and park on Lawrence Tech property is a privilege granted by the University, not a right, as provided in Public Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code, section 257.607, titled Realty Owners’ Regulation of Traffic on Private Property. Those failing to adhere to the policies and regulations, or demonstrating dangerous, reckless, or willful and wanton disregard for the public’s safety, are subject to the loss of these privileges and other disciplinary sanctions as provided in the Student Code of Conduct. Vehicle operators are also subject to the laws of the state of Michigan while on University property. Drivers of vehicles on University property must produce identification upon request of a Campus Safety officer and must heed the directions of those officers.
All faculty, staff, and students who wish to use motor vehicles on campus must complete an application to register the vehicle and obtain a parking permit. Applications and permits are available on a 24-hour basis from Campus Safety by calling 248.204.3945. Anyone wishing to register a vehicle on campus must present:
• a Lawrence Tech ID card
• a valid operator’s license (if requested).
Permits must be displayed as instructed.
Occasional Guests or Visitors
Occasional guests or visitors who come to campus to attend various functions are not required to register their vehicles. They may park in any available parking space or in a “Visitors” parking space for up to six hours. Departments may request visitor hang tags for scheduled guests or vendors from the Department of Campus Safety.
Occasional guests or visitors who receive a parking violation notice in error are requested to give the violation notice to their University host who in turn should forward it to the Department of Campus Safety. The University host should provide their name and campus extension and should request an “administrative void” of the violation notice.
Those members of the University community who are observed parking routinely in spaces reserved for visitors will receive a violation notice and are subject to disciplinary sanctions through the Student Code of Conduct.
Any student receiving more than four violation notices during an academic year will be subject to disciplinary sanctions as outlined in the Student Code of Conduct, which may include a review of driving and/or parking privileges, possible additional fines, and the revocation of driving or parking privileges on University property.
Non-Waiver of Enforcement
The failure of the University to insist upon strict compliance with any regulation in any one or more instances shall not be interpreted as a waiver of future enforcement of any such regulation. All regulations shall remain in full force and effect. Rain, inclement weather, time of day, or parking lot capacity does not alter any of the provisions of these regulations.
Owner’s/Driver’s Assumption of Risk
All motor vehicles are operated and/or parked on University property at the owner’s/driver’s risk. The University assumes no responsibility for any damage sustained or any loss by fire, theft, accident, towing, vandalism, or any other peril.
1. The maximum speed limit on campus is 15 miles per hour. No person shall operate a motor vehicle on any street, roadway, or parking lot on University property in a reckless or unsafe manner; or at a speed greater than 15 miles per hour; or at a speed that is not reasonable and proper for conditions; or without due regard to pedestrian traffic, weather, or the conditions of the street, roadway, or parking lot.
In defining reckless driving, Lawrence Tech has adopted the language in Public Act 300, Michigan Vehicle Code, Section 257.626, titled Reckless Driving on Highways, Frozen Public Lake or Parking Place:
Sec. 626. (a) Any person who drives any vehicle upon a highway or a frozen public lake, stream or pond or other place open to the general public, including any area designated for the parking of motor vehicles, within this state, in willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving.
2. Drivers of vehicles shall not operate a vehicle while intoxicated or visibly impaired while on University property. In defining operating while intoxicated or visibly impaired, Lawrence Tech has adopted the language in Public Act 300, Michigan Vehicle Code, Section 257.625, titled Operating Motor Vehicle while Intoxicated; Operating Motor Vehicle when Visibly Impaired:
Sec. 625. (1) A person, whether licensed or not, shall not operate a vehicle upon a highway or other place open to the general public or generally accessible to motor vehicles, including an area designated for the parking of vehicles, within this state if the person is operating while intoxicated. As used in this section, “operating while intoxicated” means any of the following:
(a) The person is under the influence of alcoholic liquor, a controlled substance, or a combination of alcoholic liquor and a controlled substance.
(b) The person’s ability to operate the motor vehicle is visibly impaired due to the consumption of alcoholic liquor, a controlled substance, or a combination of alcoholic liquor and a controlled substance.
3. Drivers or passengers 21 years of age or older shall not possess any open intoxicant within the vehicle while on University property, regardless of whether the vehicle is parked or moving. Open is defined as a broken seal or lid on the container.
4. Drivers and/or passengers under the age of 21 shall not possess any intoxicant either open or unopened within the vehicle while on University property, regardless of whether the vehicle is parked or moving.
5. Drivers or passengers regardless of age shall not possess any illicit or controlled substance or drug paraphernalia within the vehicle while on University property, regardless of whether the vehicle is parked or moving.
6. Pedestrians have the right of way on campus. Any vehicle that fails to yield the right of way and stop for pedestrians crossing a street at a properly marked and posted crosswalk may receive a violation notice. A pedestrian has the right of way once he or she has stepped onto the street from a sidewalk, curb, or the side of the road.
7. All accidents involving a motor vehicle on campus must be reported to the Department of Campus Safety.
8. Motorists involved in accidents must stop and provide identification.
In defining parking, Lawrence Tech has adopted the language in Public Act 235 of 1969, Section 257.941, titled Control of Traffic in Parking Areas:
Definitions. Sec. 1. As used in this act: (a) “Parking area” means an area used by the public as a means of access to and egress from, and for the free parking of motor vehicles by patrons of a shopping center, business, factory, hospital, institution, or similar building or location.
All valid parking spaces on University property are marked on the pavement. All parking lots are designated on the campus map. The use of the parking lots and parking spaces is subject to the following provisions:
1. All vehicles parked on campus are required to display a valid parking permit registered to said vehicle by the Department of Campus Safety. An exception is made for the vehicles of occasional guests or visitors parked in unreserved parking areas or areas designated for visitor parking.
a. Each parking lot has Carpool parking spaces posted. Only those individuals who are authorized to park in Carpool parking spaces may do so.
b. Individuals who certify that they will only park in Carpool parking spaces for vehicles that contain two or more non-residential students or members of the University community may obtain a Carpool parking hang tag at no charge and by completing a registration form. Hang tags are valid for one year from the date of issue. Vehicles not displaying a hang tag will receive a University violation notice for parking in a no parking area.
c. No vehicles may be parked in Carpool parking spaces between the hours of 11 p.m. and 6 a.m., seven days per week. Any vehicle parking in a Carpool parking space after 11 p.m. will receive a University violation notice for parking in a no-parking zone.
2. Handicap-designated parking spaces are posted. Only those individuals with state-issued handicap parking permits or plates are permitted to park in these spaces. Vehicles parked in a posted handicap space that fail to display a valid hang tag or plate, or if the hang tag or plate is registered to someone other than the driver of that vehicle, will be issued a State of Michigan Uniform Law Citation for the civil infraction of parking in a posted handicap parking space.
3. No parking is allowed in posted fire lanes. Depending on the severity of the violation or the existence of prior violations, vehicles parked in posted lanes may receive either a University violation notice or a State of Michigan Uniform Law Citation for the civil infraction of parking in a posted fire lane.
4. No vehicle may be parked so as to obstruct access to fire hydrants or fire department standpipes.
5. In consideration of public safety, vehicles shall not be parked beyond the end of marked rows or in the driving area of parking lots. These areas are to be kept unobstructed so as to allow for the unhampered access of emergency service vehicles such as ambulances and fire trucks.
6. Other “no-parking areas” are color coded with yellow hatching, curbing, and/or signs where possible. No one may park in these areas.
7. The absence of a “No Parking” sign does not imply that parking is permitted in a non-designated area. Parking is specifically not permitted on roadways, access drives, service roads (such as in the Quad area), around parking lot islands, or in parking lot ingress or egress drives.
8. No parking or operation of vehicles is permitted on grass, curbed areas, driveways, fire lanes, or walks on any part of the campus without the permission of the Department of Campus Safety. Exceptions: service, emergency, and maintenance vehicles during the performance of University-related duties and off-road vehicles specifically permitted to test and operate on the grounds of the University in conjunction with an academic endeavor. All other provisions of these regulations, including but not limited to reckless driving and observing pedestrian right of way, apply to the excepted vehicles.
9. No vehicle shall park, stop, or stand in an active traffic lane, roadway, or pedestrian crossing area on University property.
10. No vehicle shall be parked so to prevent pedestrian or vehicular ingress or egress to or from building doors, overhead or garage doors, or any other doors, loading docks, truck wells, and/or offloading areas.
11. Drop-off zones or areas are provided to allow the University community to unload bulky or heavy items. These are designated as “15-minute Parking” only. Drop-off zones or areas are located:
a. Lot G on the Ten Mile Road side or south side of the Engineering Building near the Engineering high bay entrance area. Blue hatched parking space.
b. In front of the University Technology and Learning Center, in the circular drive only.
c. In the circular drive area located between the Buell Building and the Science Building, south of Lot C.
d. The south side of Housing-North, indented curb area.
e. The north side of Housing-South, spaces signed as loading.
12. Only University-authorized vehicles may park in spaces designated “Authorized Parking Only.”
13. No parking is allowed in the area between the west side of the University Technology and Learning Center and the south side of the Architecture Building, commonly known as the “pit area.”
14. Immobilized vehicles or vehicles in need of repair may be continuously parked on University property for up to 24 hours in an unrestricted parking space. After 24 hours the vehicle must be removed or towed from University property. Drivers/owners are responsible for cleaning up fluids or debris left by their vehicles.
15. Operational vehicles, including those of visitors or guests, parked on campus due to carpooling or the use of mass transit to attend an event, may be left on campus up to one week. However, prior to parking the vehicle the driver must contact the Department of Campus Safety and provide the driver’s name, the vehicle’s description, license plate number, location, a contact phone number, and the duration of time that the vehicle will be left on campus.
16. No vehicles are to be parked on University property without valid and current license plates.
17. Residential students must instruct their guests to park in unrestricted parking spaces in the parking lots and not in spaces designated for visitors. Owners of guest vehicles parked on University property for more than 24 hours must contact the Department of Campus Safety and provide the driver’s name, the vehicle’s description, license plate number, location, a contact phone number, and the duration of time that the vehicle will be left on campus.
18. Visitors may park in a “Visitors” parking space for no more than eight hours. Overnight or extended parking beyond eight hours is not permitted.
19. No automotive repairs may be performed in campus parking lots. University-related academic or community endeavors are excepted.
20. No unauthorized solicitation, notice for the sale of goods or services, or informational flyers or notices may be distributed or placed on the windshields of vehicles in University parking lots unless approved in advance by the Office of the Dean of Students.
21. No vehicle shall be parked so as to occupy two or more parking spaces.
22. The University may designate parking areas for oversized vehicles or vehicles parked overnight.
23. A vehicle shall be considered abandoned when in the judgment of Campus Safety the vehicle constitutes a blight, has been parked on University property for a prolonged period of time, and presents one or more of the following conditions: is clearly in need of repair; does not display a valid Lawrence Tech parking permit; does not have license plates; or does not have current plates.
The University reserves the right to have any vehicle physically removed (towed) or intentionally immobilized at the owner’s/driver’s expense as provided under Michigan Public Acts 493, 494, and 495 of 2004 if:
• In the opinion of Campus Safety, the vehicle appears to be abandoned.
• The vehicle is parked in such a manner as to create a hazard to other traffic or is obstructing a road, service drive, loading zone, fire hydrant, fire lane, or parking area.
• The vehicle is improperly parked in an area designated as a towing zone.
• The driver of the vehicle has had his/her driving privileges suspended or revoked.
• The vehicle is being driven by a visitor who, because of repeated traffic violations, has been warned not to operate a vehicle on University property.
• The vehicle is double-parked.
• The vehicle is parked on a lawn, landscaped area, sidewalk, or other area not set aside for parking.
• The vehicle is parked in violation of lot signs that identify specific designated parking areas.
• The operator is using a parking permit decal registered to another vehicle.
• A vehicle not displaying a handicap parking permit or license plate issued by the state of Michigan is parked in a handicap-designated space.
• The vehicle is subject to the registration requirement but has not been registered to operate or park on University property.
Appeal of Parking and Traffic University Violation Notices
Due to the severity of the offense, some violations cannot be appealed. These include reckless driving, having an open container of alcohol in a vehicle, a minor in possession of alcohol in a vehicle, driving while intoxicated or otherwise impaired, and having drug paraphernalia in a vehicle. The Department of Campus Safety shall refer these violations to the Office of the Dean of Students for consideration as a Student Code of Conduct violation or may contact the Southfield Police Department for investigation.
Any person receiving a violation notice for lesser offenses has the right to appeal. The appellant shall have 15 calendar days to request an appeal, after such time all appeal rights are terminated. Contact the Department of Campus Safety at 248.204.3945 to file an appeal.
District Court Citations and Fines
Lawrence Tech Campus Safety officers are empowered by the 46th District Court, Southfield, Michigan, to issue State of Michigan Uniform Law Citations for handicap parking space and fire lane infractions. Hearing dates, appeal time frames, and fines are subject to the rules of the District Court. Upon receiving a State of Michigan Uniform Law Citation the recipient should immediately contact the court:
46th District Court
P.O. Box 2055
26000 Evergreen Road (at Civic Center Drive)
Southfield, MI 48037-2055
Fines for University Parking and Traffic Violations
After the 15-day appeal period, the Department of Campus Safety will post the fine appropriate to the violation to the pertinent student account in the Banner system without any additional notice to the student. The yellow copy of the University violation notice serves as confirmation of a pending fine. Questions about fines should be directed to the Department of Campus Safety, Monday through Friday, between 7:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. Business Services is unable to answer questions regarding violation fines. Non-timely payment of fines may result in the imposition of a late fee. These fines are in addition to any other fines or sanctions that may be imposed by any other jurisdiction.
Banner uses the following codes to correspond to University violation notices:
Failure to display a valid parking permit or failure to register a vehicle, per violation issued
All violations cited in the parking section of these regulations, except parking in a handicap space (see District Court Citations and Fines)
Moving violations other than reckless driving (P005) or alcohol violations (P006)
Alcohol in open container, minor in possession of alcohol, driving while intoxicated or impaired; drug paraphernalia in vehicle*
Failure/refusal to produce identification upon request of campus safety officer; failure/refusal to heed directions of campus safety officer
Cost to remove vehicle boot/immobilization device, vehicle towing
P0011-B Set by towing contractor
Costs associated with towing a vehicle in addition to the fine
*Referred to the dean of students as Student Code of Conduct violations.
In the interest of public safety and to help maintain a safe and secure campus environment, the Department of Campus Safety, in conjunction with the Office of the Dean of Students, where applicable, may enforce violations of the following regulations through the issuance of a University violation notice, which generates the placement of a fine on a student’s account. Minor violations of regulations, such as improper parking, littering, holding overdue library books, etc., may result in fines, which if not paid, can result in the University’s refusal to release grades, transcripts, or permission to register. The process for appealing University violation notices is indicated below.
1. In the interest of public safety or in conjunction with an alleged violation of University regulations, Campus Safety officers and University officials may require that anyone on University property present suitable identification and state an acceptable reason for being on University property.
2. The University reserves the right to ban access to University property to anyone, with or without specific reasons to do so. In the interest of public safety Campus Safety officers and University officials may direct any person/s to leave University property immediately.
3. Guests, visitors, and others who fail/refuse to produce identification will be immediately escorted from University property and told not to return without suitable identification and a specific invitation to return from a Lawrence Tech host who agrees to be responsible for the guest’s or visitor’s compliance with University regulations.
4. Students are required to have their Lawrence Tech identification card on them at all times when on University property. Students who do not have their Lawrence Tech identification card must produce some form of suitable picture identification when requested to do so by a Campus Safety officer or University official, otherwise the student must immediately leave University property. Failure or refusal to produce a Lawrence Tech identification card will result in a University violation notice.
5. Students who can otherwise be identified or confirmed as a student but who fail/refuse to produce suitable identification will receive a University violation notice.
6. Students who fail/refuse to heed the directions of a Campus Safety officer or University official will receive a University violation notice.
7. Student hosts whose guests or visitors fail/refuse to produce identification or to heed directions from a Campus Safety officer or University official will receive a University violation notice relating to their guest’s or visitor’s behavior.
8. Those persons who cannot be identified as a student and who fail/refuse to produce suitable identification and refuse to leave the campus are subject to the city of Southfield’s trespass ordinance. In this case, the trespasser will be told not to return to University property and will be escorted off University property by the Southfield police.
9. Students who fail/refuse to obey fire/tornado drills or actual alerts on University property will be referred to the Office of the Dean of Students for consideration of a Student Code of Conduct violation.
10. Students, guests, or visitors who remain in a University building after the building is closed and without specific permission to do so may receive a University violation notice.
11. Students, guests, or visitors who litter on University property may receive a University violation notice.
Any student receiving more than four violation notices during an academic year will be subject to University sanctions as outlined in the Student Code of Conduct.
Appeal of Public Welfare and Safety Violation Notices
Any person receiving a University violation notice has the right to appeal. The appellant shall have 15 calendar days to request an appeal of the violation notice, after such time all appeal rights are terminated. Please contact the Department of Campus Safety at 248.204.3945, Monday through Friday, between 7:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m., to file an appeal.
Fines for Public Welfare and Safety Violations
After the 15-day appeal period, the Department of Campus Safety will post the fine appropriate to the violation to the pertinent student account in the Banner system without any additional notice to the student. The yellow copy of the University violation notice serves as confirmation of a pending fine. Questions about fines should be directed to the Department of Campus Safety, Monday through Friday, between 7:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m., at 248.204.3945. Business Services is unable to answer questions regarding violation fines. Non-timely payment of fines may result in the imposition of a late fee. These fines are in addition to any other fines or sanctions that may be imposed by any other jurisdiction.
Banner uses the following codes to correspond to University violation notices:
Alcohol and controlled substance violations*
Disregarding a fire/tornado drill or alert*
Unauthorized access/remaining in a closed building
Failure to comply with the directions of a University official or Campus Safety officer
P0010-B $25 to $250
Violation of any other University regulation*Alcohol and controlled substance violations and disregarding a fire or tornado drill or alert will be referred to the Office of the Dean of Students for consideration as a Student Code of Conduct violation(s).
Any student organization requesting to host a gambling tournament or raffle must contact the Office of Student Engagement to receive guidance on completing a Charitable Gambling Application through the State of Michigan’s Bureau of the State Lottery. The student organization must submit the application to the Bureau of the State Lottery with appropriate application fees, along with the organization’s constitution, and a signed letter from the dean of students. It will take approximately 4–6 weeks for the Bureau of the State Lottery to approve any application. Visit www.michigan.gov/lottery for more information. (The Bureau of the State Lottery does not allow education subordinate organizations to raffle prizes over $500. Therefore, there is no need to complete the Millionaire Party application to obtain a license.)
Student groups wanting to hold a rally, march, or protest should contact the Office of Student Engagement and make an appointment with a professional staff member to discuss the event. This person will tell the student group representative what things must be done in order to secure approval of the event. If the event includes any form of public address equipment or amplified sound, the group will have to complete forms from Campus Facilities and alert Campus Safety.
Sexual Assault and Harassment Policy – Title IX
Lawrence Technological University is deeply committed to creating and sustaining an educational environment that is conducive to learning and scholarship and is supportive of students and employees. No person shall be subject to discrimination or harassment in any program or activity of the University based upon race, color, religion, sex, gender identity, pregnancy, national origin, ancestry, citizenship status, marital status, physical disability, mental disability, sexual orientation, military or veteran’s status, genetic information, or any other characteristic that is protected by applicable state or federal law.
Sexual Misconduct and Sex-Based/Gender Discrimination
Sexual Misconduct and Sex-Based/Gender Discrimination can take many forms, including sexual harassment, sexual misconduct, rape, sexual assault, sexual battery, domestic or dating violence, interpersonal violence, stalking, or other forms of sex-based or gender harassment or discrimination. These types of conduct are prohibited by the Student Code of Conduct, and Lawrence Technological University’s Harassment and Discrimination Policy and by law.
For more information regarding Lawrence Tech's Sexual Misconduct policy, please click here.
Report an Incident
To report an incident regarding sexual harassment or sexual violence, there are many places you can start, including the following:
Title IX Coordinators for Students:
Kevin Finn, Dean of Students
Cyndi Spotts, Associate Dean of Students, Student Affairs
Title IX Coordinators for Employees:
Deshawn Johnson, Executive Director, Human Resources
Campus Safety (248.204.3945) is available 24 hours/7 days a week, 365 days a year, and can reach a Title IX coordinator 24/7.
Any one of these individuals can help get you to the appropriate person to handle your specific concern. However, incidents involving gender discrimination or sexual misconduct in education programs – including rape, sexual harassment, and sexual assault – have specific regulations prescribed by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (“Title IX”).
Title IX refers to the following federal regulation:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
20 U.S.C. § 1681, et seq.
The Title IX Coordinators are responsible for coordinating the University’s compliance with and responsibilities under Title IX. Major duties include, but are not limited to:
- Being available to meet with individuals who believe sexual misconduct (including rape, assault, and harassment) has occurred.
- Ensuring that reports and complaints are handled in accordance with established practices and standards.
- Personally investigating the incident or overseeing the investigation.
For more information regarding Lawrence Tech's Sexual Misconduct policy, please click here.
Lawrence Tech is a smoke-free campus. Smoking is prohibited in all campus buildings and throughout all university-owned or operated campuses, grounds, and vehicles, including the Detroit Center for Design + Technology in Midtown and the athletic field on Ten Mile Road. Also included are classrooms, laboratories, studios, offices, restrooms, athletic facilities, dining areas, auditoriums, elevators, corridors, and all other public areas whether or not “No Smoking” notices are posted. This includes vaping.
The policy applies to all faculty, staff, students, contractors, vendors and visitors. The only exception is LTU’s Enterprise Center on the northwest edge of campus. Smoking in privately owned vehicles is also still permitted.
Lawrence Tech assumes its responsibility to maintain order in all of its operations. To this end, social events are subject to the following regulations and all other University regulations intended to ensure safety and order.
1. Social events include dances, parties, mixers, and similar events sponsored by student groups and student organizations.
2. Such events will be open to University students. These events may not be open to the public except by special invitation and with prior approval by the Office of Student Engagement and the dean of students.
3. If there is an admission charge for the event, all revenues collected must be deposited into an account of the student organization, a business organization, or through a University account. Under no circumstances may revenues be deposited into the personal account of an individual.
4. The director of campus safety will be responsible for determining the number of security personnel to be assigned to the event, if any. The nature of the event, location, expected attendance, beverages served, sponsoring organization, and other events, which may be occurring simultaneously, will be among the factors considered in assigning security. The security personnel will pay special attention to the surrounding campus area during and after the social event. Costs for additional security personnel may be incurred by the sponsoring student group or student organization at the discretion of the director of campus safety or the dean of students.
5. Student groups and student organizations sponsoring social events are responsible for abiding by all relevant University policies, procedures, and regulations, including:
a. Timely contact with the Office of Student Engagement, Campus Dining, Campus Facilities, and Campus Safety to secure facilities and equipment and arrange catering if desired.
b. Completing the required forms with the Office of Student Engagement.
c. Conducting a safe and orderly event and cooperating with security personnel and Student Engagement personnel to uphold event procedures.
d. Assuring that only University students or other approved guests participate in the event.
e. If there is an admission fee, overseeing the collection of the fee and proper deposit of funds.
f. Paying all bills and related charges associated with the event.
6. Failure to comply with the above regulations or any other relevant University regulation will be cause for the offending student organization to lose the privilege of use of University facilities and possibly their registration status. Questions of this nature which arise will be reviewed by the dean of students, the director of campus safety, and the Office of Student Engagement, who will jointly determine whether an offense occurred and the duration, if applicable, of the loss of the use of facilities.
7. These policies may be complemented by special directives of the Office of Student Engagement or the dean of students, and/or by special facility policies and procedures.
Solicitation is defined as all activities that involve the sale of goods or services; raising of funds, donations, or prizes; the selling of advertising (other than in registered student publications); the distribution or posting of literature; the distribution of products; and canvassing.
1. There shall be no solicitation on campus by non-University organizations or individuals, except for the maintenance and continuation of University business.
2. Registered student organizations may be permitted to solicit funds for their own group or for non-University charitable organizations only in accordance with the procedures governing University-registered student organizations as follows:
a. All solicitation activities shall be registered and approved in advance by the Office of Student Engagement for activities on campus but not within the residence halls. All solicitation activities conducted in the residence halls shall be approved in advance by the director of residence life.
b. All non-University charitable organizations shall be required to certify their tax-exempt status.
c. All solicitation activities shall comply with this and all other relevant University policies and local, state, and federal laws.
d. Solicitation activity in residence halls shall be restricted to residence hall groups (hall governments, individual floors, designated committees) and may be conducted only in common areas in each residence hall. Solicitation door-to-door is prohibited. Other regulations specified by the University Housing Guidelines apply.
e. The dean of students may prohibit the scheduling of concurrent solicitation activities. Such limitations shall be based upon the maintenance of order in the activities and prevention of conflicts between organizations that seek to solicit simultaneously for worthy causes.
f. At all locations, solicitors for a specific activity must be student members of the registered student organization conducting the solicitation.
The Spirit Rock exists to provide students and student organizations with the opportunity to express their spirit and pride in Lawrence Technological University. To maximize this opportunity, students are expected to respect the following regulations:
• With the exception of painting, the physical condition of the rock is not to be altered in any way that will change its shape, size, or orientation.
• The rock is not to be moved.
• Derogatory or profane words or messages on the rock are prohibited.
• There is no limit to the number of times the rock may be painted in total or by any one organization.
The Lawrence Tech Student Government recommends the following procedure for students who have suggestions and complaints:
Individual Academic Concerns
Discuss the problem with the instructor. If this does not prove satisfactory, see the chair of the department, followed in turn by the dean of the college. Further appeal may be made to the Office of the Provost.
Group Academic Concerns
Contact the dean of the pertinent college with group academic concerns. Alternately, the group may contact the dean of students and, lastly, the Office of the Provost.
Academic counseling and tutorial services are available through the department offices and from the Academic Achievement Center.
Contact the director or head of the department or office responsible for the specific concern. If uncertain as to who has responsibility, contact the Office of the Dean of Students. Suggestions of broad appeal or University-wide impact may also be presented to the Student Government for possible support and action.
President’s Open Door
The president of the University maintains an open door policy. If, after following the aforementioned procedures, a problem has not been satisfactorily resolved, make arrangements with the president’s executive assistant to see the president.
The Student Code of Conduct outlines the rights and responsibilities and expected levels of conduct of students in the University community.
- The recognition by all such members that each shares a responsibility to observe University regulations. This obligation, which is an extension of the citizen's responsibility to observe the law of the land, is an essential corollary to participation in the academic rights afforded to members of the University.
- Honesty, integrity, and caring are essential qualities of an educational institution, and the concern for values and ethics is important to the whole educational experience.
It is the policy of Lawrence Technological University that faculty, staff, and students shall comply with the federal copyright law. The University provides resources and services to assist faculty, staff, and students in complying with the federal copyright law, including:
• An agreement for faculty, staff, and students to follow the rules and regulations concerning copyright;
• Information about the TEACH Act and copyright rules on the University Library website;
• Educational opportunities to learn about and maintain compliance with the Act;
• Written guidelines and handouts within existing University publications;
• Assistance with fair use and copyright royalty investigation through the use of online services.